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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the primary functions of the digestive system?
Digestion, absorption, and elimination.
2.List and discuss the 4 layers that compose the wall of the GI Tract (Digestive Tube Proper (DTP)).
1. Mucosa: innermost
2. Submucosa: (connective tissue) contains nerves and blood vessels
3. Muscularis: muscle layer. Muscle type: smooth, (2) layers: circular and longitudinal (nerves B/T)
4. Serosa: outermost covering (visceral peritoneum)
3 Discuss the purpose of modifications of the layers of the wall of the DTP.
Layers modified according to organ’s function.
4.List and discuss the 4 structures that compose the oral cavity.
Lips: (philtrum) shallow vertical groove (oral fissure) line contact between closed lips
Cheeks: (buccinator muscle) major cheek muscle (buccal gland) mucous glands
Tongue: 2 types of muscle: extrinsic- insertion into tongue, origin in other structures. Moves tongue as whole. Intrinsic- origin and insertion within tongue.
Hard palate- bone (2 maxillary and 2 palatine
Soft palate- muscle behind the hard palate (fauces and uvula)
5.what are the 2 types of salivary glands?
Buccal glands: less than 5% of the total volume of saliva
Paired salivary glands: (3 pairs) secrete major portion 95% of saliva
what are the three types of paired salivary glands?
1. Parotid: largest of all and contain enzymes but no mucous (stensen’s duct)
2. Submandibular: contains both enzymes and mucous (Wharton’s duct)
3. Sublingual: smallest and contain only mucous
divisions of a typical tooth
crown:visible portion of tooth
neck: narrow portion surrounded by gingivae.
root: hidden portion held by periodontal membrane.
what are deciduous teeth and how many?
baby teeth and there are 20 in total
numbers per jaw:
central 2
what are permanent teeth and how many?
adult teeth and there are 32 in total generally erupt between 7-24 years
numbers per jaw:
incisors: 4
canines: 2
premolars: 4 (1 & 2)
molars: 6 (1,2 & 3)
what are the different layers if the tooth?
enamel: covers crown of tooth, most chemically stable (minerals)
dentin: greatest portion of the tooth shell
cementum: outermost dental tissue in the neck and root area
pulp cavity
cavity located within dentin it contains connective tissue, blood vessels, and sensory nerves.
its a shared organ between the respiratory and digestive system.
it extends from pharynx and stomach
and it lies posterior to trachea and heart.
layer modification:
1. mucosa
2. muscularis: inner, circular and outer. longitudinal
2 types: skeletal and smooth
size various according to numerous factors:
1. gender
2. amount distention
shape: pouchlike
position: epigastric and left hypochondriac regions (5/6 to left)
divisions of the stomach
fundus: enlarged upper portion
lies above where esophagus opens into stomach
body: central portion
pylorous: lower narrow portion
stomach curves
lesser curvature: upper surface of the stomach (smaller)
greater curvature: lower surface of stomach (larger)
sphincter muscles
cardiac sphincter- controls food entering the stomach.
pyloric sphincter- located between stomach and small intestine. it controls materials exiting the stomach.
layer modification of stomach
mucosa- rugae, gastric pits and mucous cells, gastric glands.
muscularis- smooth- inner oblique, middle circular, outer longitudinal muscle layers.
serosa- visceral peritinium
greater omentum & lesser omentum
function of the stomach (7)
1. food reservoir
2. secretes gastric juices
3. churns and mixes
4. secretes instrinsic factor
5. limited amount of absorption
6. produces gastrin
7. defense (hcl acid destroys bacteria)
small intestine
1" in diameter and 20' in length
lies between stomach and large intestine.
duodenum-shaped like letter c
jejunum- middle portion
ileum- last &longest
layer modifications of the small intestine
1. mucosa: plica circularis, villi , contains (arteriole, venule, lacteal) & microvilli (brush border cells)
all increase surface area.
large intestine divisions
cecum-lower right quadrant
colon- second portion has 4 divisions
rectum- last portion (anal canal, internal and external anal sphincter)
what are the 4 divisions of the colon?
ascending colon-
transverse colon-
sigmoid colon-
ascending colon
ileocecal valve
ascends vertically on the right side of the abdomen.
transverse colon
hepatic flexure to splenic flexure. extends horizontally across the abdomen.
descending colon
descends vertically on the left side of the abdomen. (extends to the top of the pelvic bone)
sigmoid colon
"s" shaped bends towards the left as it joins the rectum.
anal columns
folds of the mucous lining of anal canal and each contain an artery and a vein; allows for expansion (defecation)
internal and external anal sphincter
internal- smooth muscle
external- skeletal muscle
involved in defecation.
layer modification of the large intestine