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18 Cards in this Set

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aneuploidy
A chromosomal aberration in which certain chromosomes are present in extra copies or are deficient in number
Barr body
A dense object lying along the inside of the nuclear envelope in female mammalian cells, representing an inactivated X chromosome
deletion
(1) A deficiency in a chromosome resulting from the loss of a fragment through breakage (2) A mutational loss of one or more nucleotide pairs from a gene
genetic map
An ordered list of genetic loci (genes or other genetic markers) along a chromosome
genetic recombination
The general term for the production of offspring with new combinations of traits inherited from the two parents
inversion
An aberration in chromosome structure resulting from an error in meiosis or from mutagens; specifically, reattachment of a chromosomal fragment to the chromosome from which the fragment originated, but in a reverse orientation
linkage map
A genetic map based on the frequencies of recombination between markers during crossing over of homologous chromosomes; the greater the frequency of recombination between two genetic markers, the farther apart they are assumed to be
map units
A measurement of the distance between genes
monosomic
A chromosomal condition in which a particular cell has only one copy of a chromosome, instead of the normal two
mosaic
A pattern of development in which an organism consists of two sets of cells that differ according to which X chromosome is inactivated
nondisjunction
An accident of meiosis or mitosis, in which the members of a pair of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids fail to move apart properly
polyploidy
A chromosomal alteration in which the organism possesses more than two complete chromosome sets
recombinant
An offspring whose phenotype differs from that of the parents
sex-linked gene
A gene located on a sex chromosome
translocation
(1) An aberration in chromosome structure resulting from an error in meiosis or from mutagens; specifically, attachment of a chromosomal fragment to a nonhomologous chromosome. (2) During protein synthesis, the third stage in the elongation cycle when the RNA carrying the growing polypeptide moves from the A site to the P site on the ribosome. (3) The transport via phloem of food in a plant.
trisomic
A chromosomal condition in which a particular cell has an extra copy of one chromosome, instead of the normal two
wild type
An individual with the normal phenotype
duplication
An aberration in chromosome structure resulting from an error in meiosis or mutagens; duplication of a portion of a chromosome resulting from fusion with a fragment from a homologous chromosome