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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the single most important diagnostic laboratory test for renal problems:
urinary tract inflammatory process normal result of urine:
specific gravity normal result:
urine culture and sensitivity normal result:
clear, pale yellow to deep gold
appearance of urine:
determines presence of pathogens and the drugs to which they are sensitive
the single most important host factor influencing the occurrence of a urinary tract infection is:
urinary stasis
list the four objectives of the therapeutic management of the child with a urinary tract infection:
1. eliminate current infection. 2. identify contributing factors to reduce the risk of recurrence. 3. prevent systemic spread of the infection. 4. preserve renal function
define vesicoureteral reflux (VUR)
refers to the abnormal retrograde flow of bladder urine into the ureters
UTIs are often undetected in children. The nurse would suspect a UTI if the child exhibits
1. incontinence in a toilet-trained child 2. strong-smelling urine 3. frequency and/or urgency
obstruction of the urinary system can be:
1. congenital or acquired 2. unilalteral or bilateral 3. complete or incomplete 4. acute or chronic
dilation of lthe renal pelvis due to urine collection
fluid in scrotum
meatal opening located on dorsal surface of penis
narrowing or stenosis of preputial opening of fore-skin
failure of one or both testes to descend normally through inguinal canal
the massive edema seen in nephrotic syndrome is a result of:
hypoalbuminemia, leading to decreases in osmotic pressure
a clinical manifstation of nephrotic syndrome is
________ are the primary therapeutic agents used to treat nephrotic syndrome:
a common side effect of steroid therapy is:
growth retardation
clinical manifestation of nephrotic syndrome
anasarca, increased serum lipid levels
s/s of acute glomerulonephritis:
hypertension, hematuria, azotemia,
list the methods used in the diagnostic evaluation of acute glomerulonephritis:
1. history of a sore throat and/or skin infection 2. urine analysis 3. ASO titer 4. elevated antihyaluronidase (AHase) and antideoxyribonuclease B (ANDase-B) titers and streptozyme levels 5. decreased serum complement levels 6. chest x-ray
the function of the ________ _______ is the reabsorption of substances; the function of the ________ is filtration
proximal tubules; glomeruli
______ ____ ________ represents one of the most frequent causes of acquired acute renal failure in childhood.
hemolytic uremic syndrome
the primary site of injury in hemolytic uremic syndrome is:
the lining of the small glomerular arterioles
list the clinical manifestations of hemolytic uremic synkdrome.
1. vomiting 2. irritability 3. lethargy 4. pallor 5. hemorrhagic manifestations 6. anuria or aliguria 7. central nervous system involvement 8. signs of acute heart failure
the anemia seen in hemolytic uremic syndrome results form:
the damage to the red blood cells in the arterioles and the subsequent hemolysis; the damaged cells are removed by the spleen
_______ ______ is a childhood cancer that may be genetically inherited.
Wilms tumor
wilms tumo5r is treated by combined treatment of _____ and ________ with or without ________, depending on clinical stage and histologic patten.
surgery, chemotherapy, radiation
a most common cause of acute renal falure in children is:
the prime clinical menifestation of acut erenal failure is ___________.
treatment of acute renal failure is directed toward:
1. treating the underlying cause 2. management of the complications of renal failure 3. provision of supportive therapy
two life-threatening complications of acute renal failure are:
hyperkalemia, hypertension
dialysis is:
the process of separating colloids and crystalline substances in solution by the difference in their rate of diffusion through a semipermeable membrain
the types of dialysis are:
1. pertoneal dialysis 2. homodialysis 3. hemofiltration
which type of dialysis is preferred in order to preserve the chil'd independence:
pertoneal dialysis
when renal function is severly compromised, _________ _____________ is an acceptable and effecdtive means of therapy in the pediatric age group
renal transplantation
age 3 months; hasw been eating poorly, is running a high temp; iis sleeping much more than usual, and seems to be voiding large amounts. which s/s yielded to renal disease:
1. fever 2. voiding large amounts 3. poor feeding
the most important nursing goal when caring for children with urinary tract infection is
list nursing interventions used to care for UTI infant:
1. collect specimen 2. preparae parents for diagnostic procedur 3. administer antimicrobials as ordered 4. monitor vital signs 5. monitor urine output 6. increase fluid intake 7. teach parents how to perform his home care 7. teach parents how to prevent recurrences
minimal-change nephrotic syndrome--formulate nursing diagnosis r/t the presence of edema
fluid volume excess related to fluid accumulation in tissues and third spaces
what is the rationale for providing meticulowus skin care for nephrotic syndrome:
the presence of edema may predispose the child to skin breakdown and may make routine care more difficult
how to obtain specimens from absorbent disposable diapers:
put a cottonball in diaper especially at night. nurse can squeeze urine from the cottonball with ease for specimen collection
list the nursing interventions necessary to maintain fluid balance in 6 year old child
1. monitor fluid and electrolyte balance 2. weigh child daily 3. measure I/O 4. measure specific gravity of urine 5. observe for signs of dehydration and overload 6. monitor vital sings
In preparation for home care for kid with acute glomerulonephritis. how would the nurse evaluate whether the parents understood her instructions
the parent's will demonstrate testing of urine and vital signs correctly. they will verbalize the instructions regarding other measures with accuracy
what were the s/s of hemolytic uremic syndrome
vomiting, irritability, lethargy, pallor, hemorrhagic manifestations, signs of heart failure
in order for the family to maintain home dialysis, the nurse must teach the family. what areas would be included in the teaching plan
1. the disease, its implications, and the tehrapeutic plan 2. the possible psychologic effects of the disease and its treatment 3. the technical aspects of the porocedure