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75 Cards in this Set

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4 major elements that make up you body's mass are?
Oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen
Atom
smallest units of matter that retain the properties & characteristics of the element
subatomic particles are...and include
individual atoms
protons, neutrons, and electrons
What is the atomic #?
# of protons in the nucleus
what is the mass # ?
P+N
Isotopes
atoms of an element that have different # of neutrons therefore different mass #'s
*they are stable
*Ex: O 16,17,18
half-life
time required for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample of that isotope to decay into more stable form.
Atomic mass
avg. mass of its naturally occuring isotopes
what is an ion?
is an atom that has(+) or (-) charge because it has unequal # of protons & electrons.
*atoms that give up or gain electrons is ionization.
Molecule
2 or more atoms that share electrons.
Compound
substance that contains atoms of 2 or more different elements
Free radical
is an electrically charged atom or group of atoms with an unpaired electron in the outermost shell which is the valence shell
what is an ionic bond?
fore of attraction that holds together ions with opposite charges.
*cation-(+) *anion(-)
what is an electrolyte?
it is an ionic compound that breaks positive and negative ions in a solution.
What is a covalent bond?
2 or more atoms that share electrons rather than gaining or losing them.
what is a single covalent bond?
2 atoms that share 1 electron pair.
Nonpolar covalent bond
2 atoms that share the electrons equally, 1 atom does not attract the shared electrons more strongly than the other atom.
Polar covalent bond
sharing of electrons between 2 atoms is unequal the nucleus of one atom attracts the shared electrons more strongly than the nucleus of the other atom.
What is electronegativity?
the power to attract elements to itself.
What is an example of electronegativity?
Oxygen atoms attracts the electrons more strongly than the nucleui of hydrogen atoms.
what is an example of polar covalent bonds?
Oxygen atom + hydrogen atoms =water molecule
what is an example of a triple covalent bond?
Nitrogen atoms = nitrogen molecule
what is a hydrogen bond?
forms when a hydrogen atom with a partial positive charge attracts the partial neg. charge of neighboring electronegative atoms.most often o, or n.
chemical reaction
most often occurs when new bonds form or old bonds break between atoms.
energy
capacity to do work
potential energy
energy stored by matter due to its position.
Give an example of potential energy.
Person poised to jump down stairs
kinetic energy
energy associated with matter in motion
Give an example of kinetic energy.
the action of jumping
chemical energy
is a form of potential energy that is stored in the bonds of compounds & molecules
what is a single covalent bond?
2 atoms that share 1 electron pair.
Nonpolar covalent bond
2 atoms that share the electrons equally, 1 atom does not attract the shared electrons more strongly than the other atom.
Polar covalent bond
sharing of electrons between 2 atoms is unequal the nucleus of one atom attracts the shared electrons more strongly than the nucleus of the other atom.
What is electronegativity?
the power to attract elements to itself.
What is an example of electronegativity?
Oxygen atoms attracts the electrons more strongly than the nucleui of hydrogen atoms.
what is an example of polar covalent bonds?
Oxygen atom + hydrogen atoms =water molecule
what is an example of a triple covalent bond?
Nitrogen atoms = nitrogen molecule
what is a hydrogen bond?
forms when a hydrogen atom with a partial positive charge attracts the partial neg. charge of neighboring electronegative atoms.most often o, or n.
chemical reaction
most often occurs when new bonds form or old bonds break between atoms.
energy
capacity to do work
potential energy
energy stored by matter due to its position.
Give an example of potential energy.
Person poised to jump down stairs
kinetic energy
energy associated with matter in motion
Give an example of kinetic energy.
the action of jumping
chemical energy
is a form of potential energy that is stored in the bonds of compounds & molecules
what is the law of conservation of energy?
Energy can not be neither created nor destroyed
what is an exergonic reaction?
release more energy than they absorb.
what is endergonic reaction?
absorb more energy than they release
Give an example of exergonic and endergonic reactions.
exergonic occur as nutrients, such as glucose, are broken down. some of the energy released may be trapped in the covalent bonds of ATP.The molecule of glucose is completely broken down, the energy transfered to the ATP molecules is then used to drive endergonic reactions needed to build body structures.
What is activation energy?
the collision energy needed to break the chemical bonds of the reactants.
Catalysts
are chemical compounds that speed up chemical reactions by lowing the activation energy needed for a reaction to occur.
Synthesis reactions Anabolism
when 2 or more atoms,ions,molecules combine to form new and larger molecules.*endergonic
An example of synthesis reaction is...
A+B = AB
Decomposition reactions catabolism
split up large molecules into smaller atoms,ions,or molecules.
An example of a decomposition reaction is...
AB = A+B
Exchange reactions
they consist of both synthesis & decomposition reactions.
An example of an exchange reaction is...
AB+CD = AD+BC
colloid
differs from a solution mainly because of the size of its particles
Give an example of a colloid.
Milk
Suspension
the suspended material may mix with the liquid or suspending medium for some time, but will settle out.
Give an example of suspension.
blood
what are suspensions, colloids, and solutions mixed with?
different properties
What are 2 ways to express the concentration of a solution?
Percentage (mass per volume) expressed in grams per 100mL of a solution and moles per liter.
Mole
is the amount in grams of any substance that has a mass equal to the combined atomic mass of all its atoms
dissociate
that is they separate into ions and become surrounded by water molecules.
Acid
is a substance that dissociates into one or more hydrogen ions(H+)and 1 or more anions.AKA proton donor
Base
removes (H+) from a solution.dissociates into 1 or more hydroxide ions (OH-)& 1 or more cations.AKA proton acceptors.
Salt
dissociates into cations and anions(no OH- or H+).
Reversible reaction
the products can revert to the original reactants
Inorganic
usually lack carbon and are structurally simple
Give an example of inorganic.
carbon dioxide, water, salts, acids, bases
organic
always contain carbon usually contains hydrogen and always have covalent bonds
solution
a substance
solvant
dissolves another substance called the solute
hydrophilic
hydrophobic
philic-solutes that are charged or contain polar covalent bonds.
Phobic-molecules that contain nonpolar covalent bonds