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54 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Describe the Functional Brain System
Networks of neurons working together and spanning wide areas of the brain
What are the two Functional Brain Systems
The two systems are:
Limbic system
Reticular formation
What is the Limbic system responsible for?
especially important in emotions:
Amygdala – deals with anger, danger, and fear responses
Cingulate gyrus – plays a role in expressing emotions via gestures, and resolves mental conflict
Puts emotional responses to odors – e.g., skunks smell bad
The limbic system interacts with what part of the brain?
The prefrontal lobes
What does the interaction between the limbic system and the prefrontal lobes allow?
A connection between emotion and cognition:
One can react emotionally to conscious understandings
One is consciously aware of emotion in one’s life
What structures in the Limbic system convert new information into long-term memories?
Hippocampal structures
What does RAS stand for?
RAS – Reticular Activating System
What two things are contained in the Reticular Formation?
The RAS and Motor Function
What does Motor function of the reticular formation do?
Helps control coarse motor movements
Autonomic centers regulate visceral motor functions – e.g., vasomotor, cardiac, and respiratory centers
What does the RAS do?
Sends impulses to the cerebral cortex to keep it conscious and alert
Filters out repetitive and weak stimuli
What three things protect the brain?
The brain is protected by bone, meninges, and cerebrospinal fluid
What shield the brain from harmful substances?
the blood-brain barrier
What are meninges?
Connective tissue membranes lying external to the CNS
What are the three meninges called?
dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater
What are the four functions of the meninges?
Cover and protect the CNS
Protect blood vessels and enclose venous sinuses
Contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
Form partitions within the skull
Identify the three meninges
Describe the Dura Mater
"Tough Mother"
Leathery, strong meninx composed of two fibrous connective tissue layers
The two layers separate in certain areas and form dural sinuses
What is the function of the dura mater?
Three dural septa extend inward and limit excessive movement of the brain
(These are called the Falx cerebri, Falx cerebelli, & Tentorium cerebelli - not on power points)
Describe Arachnoid Mater
The middle meninx, which forms a loose brain covering
What separates the arachnoid mater from the dura mater?
the subdural space
what lies beneath the arachnoid?
Beneath the arachnoid is a wide subarachnoid space filled with CSF and large blood vessels
Describe the pia mater
Deep meninx composed of delicate connective tissue that clings tightly to the brain
What are the four functions of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)?
1.Forms a liquid cushion that gives buoyancy to the CNS organs
2.Prevents the brain from crushing under its own weight
3.Protects the CNS from blows and other trauma
4.Nourishes the brain and carries chemical signals throughout it
Circulation of CSF
What do you call the clusters of capillaries that form tissue fluid filters, which hang from the roof of each ventricle?
The Choroid Plexuses
What are the functions of the choroid plexuses?
1.Have ion pumps that allow them to alter ion concentrations of the CSF
2.Help cleanse CSF by removing wastes
Describe the functions of the blood-brain barrier?
Selective barrier that allows nutrients to pass freely
Is ineffective against substances that can diffuse through plasma membranes
What areas of the brain do not contain the blood brain barrier? Why
vomiting center and the hypothalamus), allowing these areas to monitor the chemical composition of the blood
What increases the ability of chemicals to pass through the blood-brain barrier?
Stress
What and where is the spinal cord?
CNS tissue enclosed within the vertebral column from the foramen magnum to L1
What is the function of the spinal cord?
Provides two-way communication to and from the brain
What protects the spinal cord?
Protected by bone, meninges, and CSF
What is the space between the vertebrae and the dural sheath (dura mater) that is filled with fat and a network of veins
The epidural space
identify conus medullaris, filum terminale, cervical and lumbar enlargements, cauda equina
What is the conus medullaris?
Conus medullaris – terminal portion of the spinal cord
What is the filum terminale?
Filum terminale – fibrous extension of the pia mater; anchors the spinal cord to the coccyx
What are denticulate ligaments?
Denticulate ligaments – delicate shelves of pia mater; attach the spinal cord to the vertebrae
How many pairs of spinal nerves do we have?
31
What are the sites where nerves serving the upper and lower limbs emerge called?
cervical and lumbar enlargements
What are the collection of nerve roots at the inferior end of the vertebral canal called?
Cauda equina
What is another word for "anterior"?
Mental
What is another word for "posterior"?
Dorsal
Identify the anterior median fissure and the posterior median sulcus (not labeled in the answer slide)
In the spinal cord, what does the dorsal half of the gray matter contain?
sensory roots and ganglia
In the spinal cord, what does the ventral half of the gray matter contain?
motor roots
Dorsal and ventral roots fuse laterally to form ________ _______.
spinal nerves
What are the four zones evident with in the gray matter in the spinal cord?
1. somatic sensory (SS)
2.visceral sensory (VS)
3.visceral motor (VM
4.somatic motor (SM)
What does the white matter in the spinal cord allow?
Allows communication between different parts of the spinal cord and between the cord and the brain
What three directions do the white matter fibers in the spinal cord run?
ascending
descending
transversely
What are the ascending fibers of the white matter in the s.c.?
sensory inputs
What are the descending fibers of the white matter in the s.c.?
Motor outputs
What are the transversefibers of the white matter in the s.c.?
commissural fibers
See generalized pathways of white matter in the spinal cord.