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37 Cards in this Set

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The fourth subphase of mitosis, in which the chromatids of each chromosome have separated and the daughter chromosomes are moving to the poles of the cell
anchorage dependence
The requirement that to divide, a cell must be attached to the substratum
benign tumor
A mass of abnormal cells that remains at the site of origin
binary fission
The type of cell division by which prokaryotes reproduce. Each dividing daughter cell receives a copy of the single parental chromosome
cell cycle
An ordered sequence of events in the life of a eukaryotic cell, from its origin in the division of a parent cell until its own division into two; composed of the M, G1, S, and G2 phases
cell plate
A double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell, between which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis
The centralized region joining two sister chromatids
Material present in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells, important during cell division; the microtubule-organizing center
A critical control point in the cell cycle where stop and go-ahead signals can regulate the cycle
The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome
cleavage furrow
The first sign of cleavage in an animal cell; a shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate
cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)
A protein kinase that is active only when attached to a particular cyclin
The division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells immediately after mitosis
density-dependent inhibition
The phenomenon observed in normal animal cells that causes them to stop dividing when they come into contact with one another
A nondividing state in which a cell has left the cell cycle
G1 phase
The first growth phase of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins
A haploid cell such as an egg or sperm
The complete complement of an organism's genes; an organism's genetic material
growth factor
A protein that must be present in the extracellular environment (culture medium or animal body) for the growth and normal development of certain types of cells
The period in the cell cycle when the cell is not dividing
A specialized region on the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle
M phase
The mitotic phase of the cell cycle, which includes mitosis and cytokinesis
malignant tumor
A cancerous tumor that is invasive enough to impair functions of one or more organs
A two-stage type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in cells with half the chromosome number of the original cell
The third subphase of mitosis, in which the spindle is complete and the chromosomes, attached to microtubules at their kinetochores, are all aligned at the metaphase plate
The spread of cancer cells to locations distant from their original site
mitotic spindle
An assemblage of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movements of chromosomes during mitosis
MPF (M-phase-promoting factor)
A protein complex required for a cell to progress from late interphase to mitosis; the active form consists of cyclin and cdc2, a protein kinase
origins of replication
Sites where the replication of a DNA molecule begins
The second subphase of mitosis, in which discrete chromosomes consisting of identical sister chromatids appear, the nuclear envelope fragments, and the spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores of the chromosomes
The first subphase of mitosis, in which the chromatin is condensing and the mitotic spindle begins to form, but the nucleolus and nucleus are still intact
S phase
The synthesis phase of the cell cycle; the portion of interphase during which DNA is replicated
sister chromatids
Replicated forms of a chromosome joined together by the centromere and eventually separated during mitosis or meiosis II
somatic cell
Any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg cell
The fifth and final subphase of mitosis, in which daughter nuclei are forming and cytokinesis has typically begun
(1) The conversion of a normal animal cell to a cancerous cell. (2) A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell
A mass of abnormal cells within otherwise normal tissue, caused by the uncontrolled growth of a transformed cell