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66 Cards in this Set

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Prokaryotes
Bacteria.
Cell wall present in all prokaryotes.
No nucleus.
Ribosomes (30S, 50S)
No membrane-bound organelles.
Eukaryotes
Protists, fungi, plants, animals.
Cell wall present in fungi and plants only.
Nucleus.
Ribosomes (40S, 60S)
Membrane-bound organelles.
Smooth ER
lipid synthesis and detoxification of drugs and poisons
Rough ER
protein synthesis and chemical modification
autolysis
commiting suicide by rupturing lysosome membrane which releases hydrolutic enzymes that digest cellular contents
peroxisomes
breaks fats down into smaller mlecules that can be used for fuel, and are used in liver to detoxify compounds harmful to body
glyoxosomes
found in fat tissue of germinating seeds to convert fats into sugars until seedling is mature enough to produce its own supply by photosynthesis
roles of enzymes
lower activation energy of a reaction.
increase rate of reaction.
do NOT affect overal ^G of reaction.
are not changed or consumed in course of reaction.
apoenzyme
an enzymes devoid of its necessary cofactor
holoenzyme
enzyme containing is cofactor
Michaelis constant (Km)
Km = [S] = 1/2 (Vmax)
Low Km
low Km indicates a high affinity of the enzyme for the substrate
High Km
high Km reflects a low affinity of the enzyme for the substrate
zygmogen
enzyme that is secreted in an inactive form
competitive inhibitor
binds to active site.
can be overcome by adding more substrate.
Noncompetitive inhibitor
binds to site other than active site.
cannot be overcome by adding more substrate.
anabolic
energy requiring.
biosynthesis.
catabolic
energy releasing.
break down.
autotrophic
make own carbon
heterotrophs
obtain energy from break down of nutrients
glucose formula
C6 H12 O6
NAD and FAD are reduced or oxidized in catabolic processes?
reduced in catabolic processes
NAD and FAD are reduced or oxidized in anabolic processes?
oxidized in anabolic processes
substrate level phosphorylation
when ATP is directly coupled with a change in an organic molecule without the participation of an intermediate molecule like NAD+
alcohol fermentation
To regenerate NAD+:
1) pyruvate produced in glycolysis is dearboxylated to acetaldehyde then
2) reduced by NADH
lactic acid fermentation
pyruvate is reduced to lactic acid by oxidation of NADH to NAD+
pyruvate decarboxylation
pyruvate transported to mitochondrial matrix is decarboxylated then transferred to coenzyme A to form acteyl CoA. NAD+ is reduced to NADH.
NADH produces how many ATP?
3 ATP
FADH2 produces homw many ATP?
2 ATP
oxidative phosphorylation
the coupling of oxidation of NADH with the phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP
Location of glycolysis
cytoplasm
Location of fermentation
cytoplasm
Location of pyruvate to acetyl CoA
Mitochondial matrix
Location of citric acid cycle
Mitochondrial matrix
Electron transport chain
Inner mitochondrial membrane
Carbohydrates (mono or disaccharides)
hydrolyzed into glucose or glycolytic intermediates
Fats
stored in adipose tissue. hydrolyzed by lipases to fatty acids and glycerol and carried into blood to other tissues for oxidation.
glycerol converted into PCAL (glycolytic intermediate)
Proteins
degrades amino acids only when not enough carbohydrate.
transaminaton
reaction in which amino acids lose an amino group to form an alpha-keto acid
Why is regeneration of NAD+ important
necessary for glycolysis to continue
Name the 4 complexes in electron transport chain
NADH dehydrogenase.
Succinate dehydrogenase.
Cytochrome bc1 dehydrogenase.
Cytochrome oxidase.
Net reaction for glycolysis
glucose + 2ATP + 4ADP + 2Pi + 2NAD+ --> 2 pyruvate + 2ADP + 4ATP + 2NADH + 2H+ + 2H2O
Net reaction for the citric acid cycle
2Acetyl-CoA + 6NAD+ + 2FAD + 2GDP + 2Pi + 4H2O --> 4CO2 + 6NADH + 2FADH2 + 2GTP + 4H+ +2CoA
Prokaryotes
Bacteria

- cell wall present in all prokaryotes
- no nucleus
- ribosomes (30S and 50S)
- no membrane bound organelles
Eukaryotes
protists, fungi, plants, animals

- cell wall present in fungi and plantes only
- nucleus
- ribosomes (40S and 60S)
- membrane bound organelles
nucleus
- controls cell division
- surrounded by nuclear membrane
- nuclear pores allow for two-way selective exchange
nucleolus
dense structure in nucleus where rRNA synthesis occurs
ribosomes
sites of protein production
- made in nucleolus
- free ribosomes found in cytoplasm
- bound ribosomes line ER
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
- Smooth ER: lipid synthesis and detoxification of drugs and poisons
- Rough ER: protein synthesis
golgi apparatus
receives vesicles and their contents from smooth ER
- modifies them (glycosylation), repackages them into vesicles, and distributes them
secretory vesicles
produced by the Golgi
- release their contents by exocytosis
lysosome
contain hydrolytic enzymes effective at low pH
- aid in renewing cell's own components by breaking down old ones and releasing their molecular buidlign blocks into the cytosol for reuse
autolysis
dying cell commits suicide by rupturing lysosome releasing hydolytic enzymes
peroxisome
break down fats
glyoxysome
in fat tissue of germinating seeds
- converts fats into sugars
mitochondria
sites of aerobic respiration
- contain own DNA (circular) and ribosomes that enables them to produce some of their own protein and to self-replicate by binary fission
chloroplasts
- contain chlorophyll
- site of photosynthesis
- contain own DNA and ribosomes
cell wall
- plant cell wall: made of cellulose
- fungi cell wall: made of chitin
cytoskeleton
- mechanical support
- maintain shape
- cell motility
microtubules

(e.g. centrioles, flagella)
tubulin subunits
- framework for organelle movement within cell
- centrioles direct separation of chromosomes and are made of microtubules
- cilia and flagella are specialized arrangments of microtubules that are involves in cell motility
actin
cell movement and support
- move materials across plasma membrane
intermediate filaments
maintain cytoskeletal integrity
apoenzyme
enzymes that is catalytically inactive because it is missing its cofactor
holoenzyme
enzyme with its ofactor
prosthetic group
tightly bound cofactor
coenzymes
organic cofactors (e.g. biotin)