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46 Cards in this Set

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Excretion
The removal of soluble waste materials (168)
Isotonic solution
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is essentially equal to that of the cell which resides in the solution (185)
Leucoplasts
Organelles that store starches or oils (175)
Messenger RNA
The RNA that performs transcription (195)
Plasmolysis
A collapse of the cell's cytoplasm due to lack of water (185)
Phospholipd
A lipid in which one of the fatty acide molecules has been replaced by a molecule which contains a phosphate group (181)
Waste vacuoles
Vacuoles that contain the waste products of digestion (176)
Active transport
Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane (typically opposite the dictates of osmosis or diffusion) aided by a chemical process (184)
Homeostasis
Maintaining the status quo in a cell (168)
Hypertonic solution
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is greater than that of the cell which resides in the solution (185)
Lysosome
The organelle in animal cells responsible for hydrolysis reactions which break down proteins, polysaccharides, disaccharides, and some lipids (173)
Passive transport
Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane according to the dictates of osmosis or diffusion (184)
Nuclear membrane
A highly-porous membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm (178)
Middle lamella
The thin film between the cell walls of adjacent plant cells (171)
Mitochondria
The organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy (173)
Phagocytic vacuole
A vacuole that holds the matter which a cell engulfs (176)
Phagocytosis
The process by which a cell engulfs foreign substances or other cells (176)
Pinocytic vesicle
Vesicle formed at the plasma membrance to allow the absorption of large molecules (177)
Plasma membrance
The semipermeable membrance between the cell contents and either the cell wall or the cell's surroundings (172)
Reproduction
Producing more cells (168)
Respiration
The breakdown of food molecules with a relsease of energy (167)
Ribosomes
Non-membrane-bound organelles responsible for protein synthesis (174)
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
ER that is dotted with ribosomes (174)
Secretion
The release of biosynthesized substances for use by other cells (168)
Secretion vesicle
Vesicle that holds secretion products so that they can be transported to the plasma membrane and released (177)
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
ER that has no ribosomes (175)
Transcription
The process in which mRNA produces a negative of a strand of DNA (195)
Translation
The process by which proteins are formed in the ribosome according to the negative in mRNA (197)
Chromoplasts
Organelles that contain pigments used in photosynthesis (175)
Codon
A sequence of three nucleotides on mRNA that refer to a specific type of amino acid (196)
Cytology
The study of cells (169)
Cytolysis
The rupturing of a cell due to excess internal pressure (185)
Cytoplasm
A jelly-like fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended (172)
Cytoplasmic streaming
The motion of the cytoplasm which results in a coordinated movement of the cell's organelles (173)
Digestion
The breakdown of absorbed substances (167)
Egestion
The removal of non-soluble waste materials (168)
Endoplasmic reticulum
An organelle composed of an extensive network of folded membranes which perform serveral tasks with a cell (174)
Golgi bodies
The organelles where proteins and lipids are stored and then modified to suit the needs of the cell (175)
Ions
Substances in which at least one atom has an imbalance of protons and electrons (172)
Microtubules
Spiral strands of protein molecules that form a rope-like structure (177)
Absorption
The transport of dissolved substances into cells (167)
Activation energy
Energy necessary to get a chemical reaction going (188)
Anticondon
A three-nucleoctide sequence on tRNA (195)
Cell Wall
A rigid substance on the outside of certain cells, usually plant and bacteria cells (171)
Central vacuole
A large vacuole that rests at the center of most plant cells and is filled with a solution which contains a high concentration of solutes (176)
Chromatin
Clusters of DNA and proteins in the nucleus (178)