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57 Cards in this Set

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What is the only liquid tissue in the body
Blood
The Cardiovascular System is comprised of what three things
Blood (Fluid Component)
Heart (Pump)
Blood Vessels (series of conducting pipes)
Blood is what kind of tissue
Connective in which living cells are suspended in non living fluid matrix
What is present when clotting of the blood occurs
Fibrin strands (which are fibrous proteins)
What are the functions of the Blood
(1) Transportation of dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones and metabolic wastes
(2) The regulation of PH
(3) The restriction of fluid loss at injury sites (clotting)
(4) Defense against toxins and pathogens
(5) The stabilization of body temperature
What is Normal Volume of Blood for Female and Male
Female: 4-5 liters
Male: 5-6 liters
What is Hypovolumec and the consequences of being hypovolumec.
Blood that is lower than it should be. Low Blood Pressure and your blood is thinner than it should be
What is Hypervolumec and the consequences of being hypervolumec
Having too much blood. BP is higher than it should be and blood is thicker than it should be.
What is pH average
7.4
What is the normal range
7.35 to 7.45
What is term for high and low Ph
too high --- Alkilosis
too low --- acidosis
Name the methods for blood collection and brief description of each
Venipuncture - Collection from veins (median cubital on the anterior surface of the elbow
Arterial Puncture or arterial stick -- (radial artery at the wrist or brachial artery at the elbow)
Puncturing -- drawing from peripheral capillaries
-tip of finger
-lobe of ear (mostly infants)
-the great toe or heel (infants)
How do you separate blood components
By spinning in a centrifuge
Why does your blood separate
Will separate due to different densities
Plasma + Formed Elements =
Whole Blood
Which is more dense, Plasma or red blood cells?
Red Blood cells is more dense (will appear on bottom)
Plasma will appear on top
Hematocrit =
Packed Red Blood Cells reported as PCV or VPRC
Packed cell volume or
Volume of packed red cells
What is the difference between plasma and serum
Plasma is straw colored liquid portion of blood and serum is the same as plasma except without the clotting proteins
What are the clotting proteins called
fibrinogen
What are the functions of plasma
1)Transports nutrients and gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide)
2) Regulates fluid and electrolyte balance
3) Maintains pH
What is a solvent and what is the "universal Solvent"?
Solvent is a substance that dissolves. Water is the universal solvent --- it will dissolve everything.
What are the compontents of Plasma
90% Water and the other is dissolved solutes.
What are the dissolved solutes
Proteins, Nutrients, Waste Materials, Gases and Electrolytes.
Where are Proteins primarily produced
Liver
What are the proteins that make up the dissolved solutes in Plasma
Albumin, Globulins, Fibrinogen and Misc. Others
What does Albumin do
exerts osmotic pressure to maintain water balance between blood and tissues
What is osmosis
The diffusion of water movement over molecules from one area to another
What are the purpose of the two globulins
Antibodies or immunoglobulins -- attack forein proteins and pathogens
transport globulins bind small ions hormones or compounds that might otherwise be lost at the kidneys.
What does fibrinogen do
functions in blood clotting
What comprise the nutrients of the dissolved solutes
glucose, amino acids and fatty acids
What comprise the waste materials of the solutes
lactic acid, urea, uric acid, creatnine and ammonium salts
where do you find urea
In the Liver
what is the importance of creatinine
It is a bank for energy (it stores it)
What comprises the gases of the solutes
Oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen
Electrolytes contain what?
cations (+) and anions (-)
What causes the positive in cations
The have lost an electron
What cases the negative in anions
They have gained an electron
What is 78% of air
Nitrogen
How do we get nitrogen
by eating Proteins
What are the Formed Elements
RBC, WBC and Platelets
What is the Formation of Formed Elements of Embryo
(1) Embryonic sac - primary site of blood formation for the 1st 8 weeks
(2) Liver and Spleen from the 2nd through the 5th month of development
(3) Red bone marrow or myeloid tissue after the 5th month.
What is blood cell formation and differentiation
Hemopoiesis or hematopoiesis
What is Red Blood cell production
erythropoiesis
What is White Blood Cell
leukopoiesis
What is platelet production
thrombocytopoiesis
What is considered to be the precursor cells or mother cells of all formed elements
Hemocytoblasts or PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS
What happens to the nucleus in the Pluripotent stem cells?
Nucleus gets smaller
What hormone stimulates the formation of RBC
erythropoietin
What his the stimulating factor for WBC
CSF or Colony Stimulating Factor
What is the CSF produced by?
active lymphocytes
What stimulates Platelet formation and where is it produced
Thrombopoietin and it is produced in the kidney
What shape is the erythrocytes
Binconcave discs
What is the major factor contributing to blood viscosity?
Red Blood Cells
What are the three important effects of the Erythrocytes
(1) It gives RBC relatively large surface are which allows faster exchange between cell and plasma
(2) It enables RBCs to form stacks....smooth flow through narrow blood vessels
(3) It enables the RBC to bend and flex -- able to enter small capillaries
What is the term used for the RBC to form stacks
Rooleaux
Is Erthyrocytes considered anerobic or aerobic respiration
anaerobic
What is the Spleen considered in reference to red blood cells
"red blood cell graveyard