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85 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What type of tissue make up blood?
Connective
What allows O2 and nutrients to diffuse from blood to cells and CO2 and wastes to diffuse from cells to blood?
Capillaries
Blood helps to maintain what important process of the body?
Homeostasis
What are the fxns of homeostasis?
1. Transport processed molecules
2. Regulate pH
3. Maintain body temp
4. Protection from microorganisms
5. Clot formation
What are located in the blood to help maintain the blood pH ~7.35-7.45?
Buffers
What is the liquid portion of blood called?
Plasma
What is the plasma's most abundant substance?
Water
What is the most abundant plasma protein?
Albumin
Which plasma protein acts as antibodies?
Globulins
Which plasma protein assists in the regulation of the Plasma Colloid Osmotic Pressure?
Albumin
What plama protein helps to form blood clots?
Fibrinogen
What plasma protein can act as transcript molecules?
Globulins
What is the least abundant plasma protein?
Fibrinogen
What is the process of formed elements called?
hemopoiesis
Where does hemopoiesis occur in adults?
Red bone marrow: sternum, vertebrae, pelvis, & proximal ends of femur and humerus
Where does hemopoiesis occur in an embryo/fetus?
yolk sac, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and red bone marrow
Where does the production of formed elements occur in neonates?
lymphoid tissue and red bone marrow
Formed elements are derived from what type of cells?
Hemopoetic stem cells
Myeloblasts differentiate into what?
Basophils, Eosinophils, Neutrophils
What is the hemopoetic stem cell of erythrocytes?
Proerythrocytes
Platelets are differentiated by which hemopoetic stem cell?
Megakaryocytes
Lymphoblasts differentiate into what?
Lymphocytes
Monoblasts differentiate into what?
Monocytes
What is the main component of erythrocytes?
Hemoglobin (Hb)
What enzyme is responsible for CO2 transport?
Carbonic anhydrase
What are the 4 polypeptide subunits of the hemoglobin called?
Globin
What element does the heme group contain?
Iron
What does O2 bind to on a hemoglobin molecule?
Heme's Fe
How many O2 molecules can a Hb molecule carry up to?
4
What portion of a Hb molecule does CO2 bind to?
Globin
Up to how many CO2 and O2 molecules can a HB molecule carry at one time?
8 (4 O2; 4 CO2)
What is the name of a HB molecule that has a CO2 attached to it?
Carboxyhemoglobin or carbaminoglobin
What is the name of the production of red blood cells?
Erythropoiesis
Erythropoiesis is stimulated by low _____ levels in the plasma?
Oxygen
What is the main fxn of red blood cells?
Carry O2
What hormone regulates the production of red blood cells?
Erythropoietin
What is the name of immature erythrocytes?
Reticulocytes
How many RBC's are in females? Males?
~4.3-5.2 million/mm3; ~5.1-5.8 million/mm3
Approximately how many days do RBC circulate until they lyse in females? Males?
110; 120
Lysed RBC become trapped in what organ(s) where macrophages will enzymatically separate the heme from the globin?
Spleen and liver
What happens to the globin portion after it is separated from the heme?
It is brokendown into amino acids to be used in the production of new Hb molecule.
What happens to the Fe portion during the breakdown process?
It is transported to red bone marrow and is recycled into new Hb molecules.
What happens to the remainder of heme during the breakdown process?
It is converted into bilirubin which facilitates in the production of bile produced by the liver.
Approx how many leukocytes are there in the human body?
~4.000-11,000/mm3
What do WBC lack that RBC have?
Hemoglobin
What is the main function of leukocytes?
Protects body againsts microorganisms & cleans up cellular debris
What is the process called when leukocytes sense microorganisms and debris?
Chemotaxis
WBC travel through the blood vessels by what type of movement?
Amoeboid movement
What is the process when WBC's slip through the blood vessel wall and enter the tissue?
Diapedsis
What is the most common WBC? Least common?
Neutrophil; Basophils (*NLMEB*)
Which leukocyte is responsible for phagocytizing bacteria?
Neutrophils
Which leukocyte secretes antibodics (i.e. lysozyme & defensins)?
Neutrophils
Which leukocyte functions to defend the body against infections (i.e. hookworm, tapeworm) by releasing toxic chemicals
Eosinophils
What type of WBC releases enzymes which lessen the severity of allergic reactions by destroying inflammatory cells?
Eosinophils
Which specific leukocyte functions to facilitate an allergic response by releasing histamine?
Basophils
Which leukocyte releases a substance to prevent excessive clotting (aka heparin)?
Basophils
What specific WBC differentiate into plasma cells?
B cells
B and T cells are specific types of what leukocyte?
Lymphocytes
What WBC migrates to the lymphoid tissue to play a large rold in immunity?
Lymphocytes
What specific cells are directly associated with the secretion of antibodies?
Plasma cells
What specific type of WBC directly attacks virus infected and tumor cells?
T cells
Monocytes differentiate into _____, which phagocytize bacteria and dead cells.
Macrophages
Which two WBC are associated with phagocytizing bacteria?
Neutrophils and Monocytes
What is the production of WBC called?
Leukopoiesis
WBC migrate to ____ tissue after a certain amont of time.
Lymphoid
What hormones facilitate in regulating the production of leukocytes?
Cytokines and Colony stimulating factor
During the prevention of extreme blood loss what is the process that temporarily closes the damaged b.v. as a result of the contraction of smooth muscle?
Vacular spasm
What chemical is released from damaged endothelial cells to help temporarily close the b.v. wall?
Endothelin
What type of cells make up the blood vessel walls?
Endothelial cells
What 2 ways can a b.v. be triggered to close a wall that has been damaged?
Chemical stimulation of endothelin being released or nervous stumulation as a result of pain
What step in the prevention of extreme blood loss do platelets accumulate at the area of injury?
Platelet Plug Formation
What is the name of the specific process when the endothelial cells produce the vonWillebrand factor?
Platelet Adhesion
What is the name of the protein responsible for formin a bridge b/w the platelets and the collagen that has been exposed by injury?
vonWillebrand factor
What is the name if the reaction once the platelets have been exposed to the collagen and activate to release ADP and Thromboxane A2?
Platelet Release reaction
What are the name of the chemicals that recruit other platelets to the site of injury?
ADP & Thromboxane A2
During platelet plug formation, what is the name of the step that platelets stick together using surface receptors and fibrinogen?
Platelet Aggregation
What is the chemical released from endothelial cells that limits aggregation to only the area of injury?
PGI2
What enzyme catalyzes prothrombin into thrombin?
Prothrombin activator
What is the process of blood clot formation?
Coagulation
What must be active in order for fibrinogen to differentiate into fibrin?
Thrombin
What is responsible for actually "glueing" platelets together to form clots?
Fibrin
What is the process of dissoluting a clot?
Fibrinolysis
What is released by endothelial cells around a clot to begin fibrinolysis?
Tissue Plasminogen Activator
What is the plasma protein made by the liver that will differentiate into plasmin after TPA has catalyzed it?
Plasminogen
What hydrolyzes the fibrin holding a clot together?
Plasmin