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65 Cards in this Set

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Circulatory System
An organ system that moves substances to and from cells; also helps stabilize body temperature and pH
Gastrovascular Cavity
Opening in an organism that functions in both digestion and circulation; found in Cnidaria and Platyhelminthes phylas
Blood
Circulatory fluid that carries nutrients throughout the body; one of the three main components of all circulatory systems
Blood Vessels
Structures that direct blood throughout the body; one of the three main components of all circulatory systems
Heart
Organ that pumps blood throughout the body; one of the three main components of all circulatory systems
Open Circulatory System
Circulatory system that bathes cells directly in blood
Hemolymph
A mixture of blood and interstitial fluid transported through open circulatory systems
Sinus
Spaces surrounding organs in an open circulatory system through which hemolymph passes to exchange chemicals
Closed Circulatory System
Circulatory system in which blood is confined to vessels that branch out toward organs
Cardiovascular System
A closed circulatory system in vertebrates
Atrium
A chamber in the heart that receives blood
Ventricle
A chamber in the heart that pumps blood through the body
Arteries
Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
Arterioles
Vessels that convey blood into the capillaries
Capillaries
Microscopic vessels with thin, porous walls; the vessel in which materials are exhanged with organs
Capillary Beds
Networks of capillaries located in each tissue
Veins
Blood vessels that return blood to the heart
Venules
Blood vessels that convey blood from the capillaries into veins
True or False: all arteries carry blood from the heart
True
True or False: all veins carry blood to the heart
False: The Hepatic Portal Vein carries blood to the liver
Characteristics of Cardiovascular System in Fish
Two chambered heart, single circuit blood flow
Characteristics of Cardiovascular System in Amphibians
Three chambered heart, two circuits of blood flow; pulmocutaneous and systemic
Characteristics of Cardiovascular System in Reptiles
Three chambered heart with the middle chamber partially bisected by a septum, two circuits of blood flow; pulmonary and systemic
Characteristics of Cardiovascular System in Birds and Mammals
Four chambered heart, two circuits of blood flow; pulmonary and systemic
Gill Circulation
Blood flow to the gills of a fish where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged
Systemic Circulation
Blood flow to the remaining anatomy of a fish
Double Circulation
A closed circulatory system comprised of two circuits that pumps heart through the heart twice: once when oxygen-poor, once when oxygen-rich
Pulmocutaneous Circuit
The circuit in amphibians, that leads oxygen-poor blood to gas exchanging organs (lungs and skin) where carbon dioxide is exchanged with oxygen
Pulmonary Circuit
The circuit in reptiles, birds and mammals that leads oxygen-poor blood to respiratory organs where carbon dioxide is exchanged with oxygen
Systemic Circuit
The circuit in amphbibians, reptiles, birds and mammals that leads oxygen-rich blood to organs to exchange nutrients and oxygen with carbon dioxide and waste materials
Describe the path of blood flow in a mammal, beginning with the right ventricle
1. Right Ventricle
2. Pulmonary Artery
3. Lung Capalaries
4. Pulmonary Vein
5. Left Atrium
6. Left Ventricle
7. Aorta
8. Capillaries
9a. Anterior/Superior Vena Cava (for blood in the head and forelimbs)
9b. Posterior/Inferior Vena Cava (for blood in the abdomen and hind limbs)
10. Right Atrium
Cardiac Cycle
The heart's complete sequence of pumping and filling blood
Systole
The phase in which a heart chamber is contracted
Diastole
The phase in which a heart chamber is relaxed
Cardiac Output
The volume of blood per minute that the left ventricle pumps into the systemic circuit; dependent upon heart rate and stroke volume
Heart Rate
The number of times the left ventricle contracts per minute
Stroke Volume
The amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle in each contraction
How much can exercise increase during exercise?
Five times the resting heart rate
Atrioventricular Valve
Flaps of connective tissue between each atrium/ventricle pair that prevents the back flow of blood
Semilunar Valves
Flaps of connective tissue at the heart that prevent back flow of blood into the ventricle
Describe the Relaxation Phase of the Cardiac Cycle
Atria and Ventricles both in diastole; atrioventricular valves open, semilunar valves closed; blood returning through veins flows into the atria and ventricles
Describe the Preparation Phase of the Cardiac Cycle
Atria in systole, ventricles in diastole; atrioventricular valves open, semilunar valves closed; remaining blood in atria is squeezed into ventricles
Describe the Exertion Phase of the Cardiac Cycle
Atria in diastole, ventricles in systole; atrioventricular valves closed, semilunar valves open; blood in ventricle pumped out of the heart, atria fill with blood
Pulse
The rhytmic stretching of ateries caused by blood pressure due to ventricular contractions
What causes the "lub-dut" sounds of a heart beat?
Lub: Recoil of blood in ventricles against closed atrioventricular valves
Dut: Recoil of blood in aorta/pulmonary arteries against semilunar valves
Heart Murmur
A defect in one or more valves in which blood is able to pass back through one or more of the heart valves; detectable as a hissing sound
Neurogenic Heart
A heart in which the pacemaker originates in motor nerves outside the heart
Myogenic Heart
A heart in which the pacemaker originates as a specialized muscle tissue within the heart
Sinoatrial Node
Pacemaker, the region that sets the rate and timing at which all muscle cells contract; located in the wall of the right atrium near the superior vena cava
Atrioventricular Node
A node that delays the electrical signal from the sinoatrial node to ensure the atria are completely emptied prior to ventricular contraction
Electrocardiogram
A recording of electrical pulses of the heart
Describe the four phases of electrical current through the heart
1. Sinoatrial node generates electrical pulse
2. Atrioventricular node delays signal
3. Signals pass to heart apex
4. Signals sprear through ventricles and cause contraction
What outside sources can affect the rate at which pacemakers generate electrical pulses?
Two Nerve Sets (one to speed it up, one to slow it down)
Epinephrine (Fight or Flight Hormone)
Body Temperature
Endothelium
A single layer of flattened cells providing a smooth surface that minimizes blood flow resistance
Describe the anatomy of arteries and veins
Outer Layer: Conective Tissue
Middle Layer: Smooth Muscle
Inner Layer: Endothelium
Describe the anatomy of capillaries
Outer Layer: Basement Membrane
Inner Layer: Endothelium
Why does blood flow slower through capillaries than through arteries/veins?
Total cross section of capillary bed is wider than total cross section of aterty; blood is conveyed to a large amount of capillaries and thus slows
Why is it beneficial for capillaries to have thinner walls and slower blood flow than arteries and veins?
Facilitates the exchange of substances between blood and interstitial fluid bathing the cells
Why is it beneficial to have arteries that are both thick and elastic?
Provides strength for rapid, high-pressure blood flow and maintains pressure even between contractions
How does blood flow back through veins to the heart?
Muscle action squeezes blood up through veins; valves in veins prevent blood from flowing back down
Blood Pressure
Pressure exherted by blood on the walls of blood vessels
Systemic Arterial Blood Pressure
Pressure in large arteries that deliver blood to the body; the standardized blood pressure measurement of health sciences
Systolic Pressure
The highest level of blood pressure during the cardiac cycle
Diastolic Pressure
The lowest level of blood pressure during teh cardiac cycle
Peripheral Resistance
Prevention of blood pressure loss through timed contraction of the heart to prevent blood in the arterioles from reversing blood pressure