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33 Cards in this Set

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CEREBRAL WHITE MATTER
function?
comprised of?
major projection fiber?
function of proj. fiber?
Responsible for communication between the cerebral areas, cortex, & lower CNS centers
-mostly comprised of lg bundles of myelinated fibers called projection fibers
-major projection fiber: corpus collosum (connects the 2 cerebral hemispheres)
BRAIN STRUCTURES
name some
Basal Nuclei, diencephalon, thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, brain stem, midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata, cerebellum
BRAIN STRUCTURES: BASAL NUCLEI:
what is it?
comprised of?
very closely associated with?
contains?
-deep structure within white matter
-comprised of caudate nucleus, putamen, & Globus pallidus
-very closely associated with substantia nigra
-contains structure called striatum
LENTIFORM NUCLEUS
putamen + pallidus
CORPUS STRIATUM
lentiform + caudate
STRIATUM
function?
-receives input from entire cortex
-output from striatum appears to have some complex role in skel. muscle movement
BASAL NUCLEI CONT'D
derivative of
possible function?
example?
derived from corpus striatum
-may be involved in reg. of unneccessary movements, controlling intensity of movement, as well as starting & stopping movements (ie parkinsons)
DIENCEPHALON
what is it?
what surrounds it?
comprised of?
-central core of forebrain
-surrounded by cerebral hemi's
-comprised of thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus
THALAMUS
makes up what % of diencephalon?
means what?
contains?
function?
-makes up 80% of diencephalon
-means inner room
-contains a dozen nuclei that project to specific cortical areas
-where info is stored & edited
-IE: crude info > thalamus > discrimination
HYPOTHALAMUS
like what?
functions?
like an "endocrine master control"
-functions: autonomic(reg. HR, BP, GI motility, R, & pupil size), emotional (part of limbic sys. involved in sex drive, fear, pleasure, rage), body temp (internal thermostat), reg. of food & water (hormones, osmoreceptors), biological clock (suprachiasmatic nuclei, sleep & wake cycles), hormonal release (part of hypthalamic-pituitary axis)
EPITHALAMUS
what is it?
functions? (3)
-pineal gland (pine cone shaped)
-secretes melatonin (deriv. of seratonin), involved in sleep & wake cycles, & forms choroid plexus (CSF production)
BRAIN STEM
what are the 3 main regions?
very similar to?
function?
3 main regions: midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
-very similar, histologically, to the spinal cord
-involved in gross function: rigidly programmed autonomic functions
-primitive functions
MIDBRAIN
location?
contains?
forms? which is surrounded by?
also consists of?
located between diencephalon & pons
-contains 2 peduncles ventrally w large pyramidal tracts that descend down towards spinal cord
-forms hollow cerebral aquaduct (that connects the 3rd & 4th ventricles) surrounded by periqueductal matter (involved in pain suppression)
-consists of several scattered nuclei:
superior colliculli (head movement), inferior colliculli (auditory auditory startle reflex), & substantia nigra (dopamine)
PONS
what is it?
means?
contains?
-bulging area between midrain & medulla
-means bridge
-contains conduction tracts to allow for communication between cortex & cerebellum
-contains respiratory ctr (herniation)
MEDULLA OBLONGATA
location?
contains?
gross functions?
-blends into spinal cord
-contains several nerve tracts
-gross functions: CV (cardiac & vasomotor responses HR, BP), Respiratory (in a neg feedback mech with the pons. Rate & depth of breathing), vomitting, coughing, swallowing, hiccuping, yawning, sneezing
CEREBELLUM
means?
locale?
functions?
means small brain
-lies dorsal to pons
-f: processes input from motor cortex, brain stem & sensory rec. Provides precise timing & appropriate patterns of skel. muscle contraction. Allows for smooth, coordinated muscle movement.
CEREBELLUM CONT'D
unique characteristic?
consists of?
portions?
overal fuction?
-divided into 2 hemi's
-consists of a cortex (gray matter), & a myelinated, white matter core
-medial portion (motor of trunk), intermediate (distal limbs), & lateral (movement planning)
-cerebellum constantly compares higher brain intentions w/ body performance
LIMBIC SYSTEM
what is it?
linked ?
function?
areas?
-network of non-localized structures
-linked by a # of nerve tracts
-function: emotions
-2 main areas: amygdala, cingulate gyrus
AMYGDALA
recognizes?
description?
decreased 5-HT =?
-recognizes angry & fearful facial expressions
-likely serotenergic in nature
-decreased 5-HT = decreased ability to rec. facial expressions related to fear & anger
CINGULATE GYRUS
functions?
-expresses emotions thru gestures
-involved in resolving mental conflicts
-involved in emotional supression
-interacts with cortex (emotion over logic)
RETICULAR FORMATION
forms?
comprised of?
function?
neurons project?
-forms the core of the medulla oblongata, pons, & midbrain
-comprised of loosely clustered neurons, forming 3 columns along the length of the brainstem
-involved in wakefullness and alertness
-neurons project to the SC, hypothalamus, thalamus, cerebellum, & cortex
RAPHE NUCLEI
5-HT
MEDIAL, LATERAL GROUPS
respiratory function
RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM
function
inhibited by?
-enhances arousing effects, & also supresses competitive/weak signals
-inhibited by the hypothalamic sleep center
PROTECTION OF BRAIN
forms
skin
bone
meninges
cerebral spinal fluid
blood brain barrier
MENINGES
functions
layers
-Fuctions: covers CNS, protects BV, helps contain CSF, forms portions of the skull
-layers: dura matter, arachnoid, pia mater
DURA MATER
description
layers
location
-toughest layer
-2 layered fibrous tissue: periosteal layer (fuses to bone), meningeal layer (faces brain
-area right below the bone
ARACHNOID
what is it?
location
what's below it?
what does it contain?
-loose spider like web covering
-separated from dura by subdural space
-below arachnoid is subarachnoid space
-SA space contains CSF & many BV
PIA MATTER
what is it?
delicate outer covering of brain
thin membrane that clings to the brain
CSF
similar to?
contains more? less?
contains __ which has ?
fills?
moved along by ?
-similar in composition to plasma
-contains more Na, Cl, H, less Ca, K
-contains choroid plexus of the ventricular structures contain permeable capillaries w/ special ion pumps that manufacture CSF
-CSF fills the ventricles , then moves into SA space via the 4th ventricle
-Moved along by ependymal cells to circulate thru the SA space & spinal cord
CSF CONT'D
Functions
Functions: protection, nourishment, & hormone transplant & drugs
BBB
what is it?
consists of?
feature?
limits?
continuous layer of endothelium of the capillaries
-consists of thick basal lamina & tight gap junctions
-very limited permeability
-limits access of a variety of chemicals to the brain
BBB CONT'D
permeables
impermeables?
role?
Passive: lipids, gases. glucose, amino acids
Impermeables: K ions, nonessential AAs, water solubles, urea
-Some areas more perm than others
-metabolic role