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120 Cards in this Set

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The terms ____ and ____ describe grooves in the surface of the cerebrum.
fissure and sulcus
The cerebral cortex because it forms a cap over the rest of the brain is also calle the _________.
thinking cap
In between the fissure's or sulcuses are the grooves called ___________?
gyrus
The _____ is sometimes call the fifth lobe?
Insula
The brain is developed from the anterior end of the ________?
Neural tube
Ventricles contain ______________?
Cerebrospinal fluid
The cavities of the brain are called _______?
Ventricles
The brain is divided into sections, in linear order they are?
The telencephalon

The diencephalon

The mesencephalon

The metencephalon

The myelencphalon
The telencephalon consists of the ______? Each hemisphere has within it the ______, and _____, and the ______?
Cerebral hemispheres

Cortex, white matter, and basal nuclei
The diencephalon contains the _______, _____, and _____?
Thalmus, hypothalmus and epithalamus
The mesencephalon contains the _____?
Midbrain
The metencephalon includes the ______ and ______?
Pons and cerebellum
The myelencephalon is the ______?
Medulla oblongata
The midbrain, pons, and medulla are collectively called the ______?
Brainstem
______and ______ matter is found throughout the different parts of the brain.
Gray and white
The gray matter in the brain is the site of the connectons between neurons and contains the cell bodies of the _____ and ______?
Motor and Interneurons
The gray matter of the brain is composed of _________ neurons?
Unmyelinated
The white matter of the brain like the spinal cord is composed of ____ fibers in tracts?
Myelinated
The _______ are cavities within the brain derived from the orginal lumen of the neural tube?
Ventricles
The ventricles of the cerebral hemisphere are called _______, between the hemispheres the ________,and beside the cerebellum the _____.
Lateral ventricles

Third ventricles

Fourth ventricle
___________ connect the ventricles together?
Canals
The fourth ventricle connects to the central canal of the spinal cord, and other canals, called _______, lead to the subarachnoid space of meninges?
Apertures
The _________ is produced by filtration from blood capillaries located in tissue known as the ______ which lines the ventricles?
Cerebrospinal fluid

Choroid plexus
_____________ forces water, electrolytes, and nutrients out of the ______?
Filtration

Blood
The ______, _______ and _______ filtered out of the blood are processed by the ________ cells and released into the cerebrospinal fluid.
water, electrolytes, and nutrients

ependymal cells
The cerebrospinal fluid circulates between the ______ and into the ______.
ventricles

spinal canal
The cerebrospinal fluid also enters the _____ and _____ spaces through apertures near the _____ and bathes the brain and spinal cord as well as providing buoyancy.
subarachnoid and subdural

fourth ventricle
The anrachnoid tissue pockets which absorbs the cerebrospinal fluid are call the _______ or ____ and allow the fluid to move in to the veins by _____ and ______ gredient produced by the lower pressure in the vein?
arachnoid granulations or arachnoid villi

osmosis and pressure
______ and _______ of CSF must occur at the same rate to prevent an imbalance?
production and absorbtion
If absorbtion of CSF is insufficient it causes a condition called ________?
hydrocephaly "water on the brain"
Hydrocephaly usually shows up in _______ _______ and can damage the brain and lead to abnormal development?
early childhood
Hydrocephaly is corrected surgically with a ___________ a small tube which drains the fluid from the meniges and short circuits it into a nearby vein.
shunt
The outer layer of the cerebrum is composed of gray matter and is called the _________?
cerebral cortex
A short _______ indicates the upper delineation of the pariental from the occipital lobe.
parieto-occipital fissure
The ____ sulcus separates the pariental lobe from the frontal lobe.
central
The cerebrum is divided into two hemispheres separated by the_______.
Longitudinal fissure
The cerebral cortex is the area of ________________?
conscious thought and perception
The cortex is divided up into regions called lobes they are?
Frontal Lobe

Pariental Lobe

Occipital Lobe

Temboral Lobe
The ____ fissure divides the pariental from the temporal lobe.
lateral
The largest fissure is the _____ fissure which divides the two hemisphers from one another.
longitudinal
The cerebral hemisphers are connectd by fiber tracts which permit them to communicate with one another. The major connection is the ______, a second is the ______.
corpus callosum

fornix
The left hemisphers is responsible for ____,____, and ____.
logic, mathematics, and language
Each area of the body, for that matter each muscle, is controlled by a specific part of the _____.
pre-central gyrus
The orientation of the pre-central gryus is rreversed in positon compared to the body location, the muscles for the leg and foot are at the ____ of the gyrus, and the head and neck at the ____.
top

bottom
The pre-central gyrus is the origin of the _________?
corticospinal tracts
The ______ is the comparable area for sensory perception, called the _____.
post-central gyrus

somatosensory area
The _____ receives the conscious senstaions from the musculocutaneous regions of the body: pain, temperature, touch, and pressure.
post-central gyrus
The conscious sensations of the body are carried by the _____ and the ____ to the post-central gyrus.
spinothalamic tract and fasciculus gracilis and cuneatus tracts
The ____ in front of the pre-central gyrus, is a motor association area partially responsible for the _____ reflexes.
pre-motor area

learned reflexes
The ____ synctronizes eye movements.
frontal eye field
_____ is the area for control of the muscles of speech, it is sometimes called the ______.
Broca's area

motor speech area
The _____ is important in planning complex movements and in general ___ and ___ of thoughts.
Prefrontal cortex

Planning

Elaboration
_____ area is the area which controls language comprehension and elaboration, a general interpretive and intelligence area.
Wernicke's area
This area receives and perceives hearing ___________.
Primary auditory area
_____________- areas involved with association of hearing with other functions such as speech and memory, necessary to speak and to understand speech.
Auditory association areas
__________ - this area percieves visual stimuli and cosntructs a three-demensional image using stimuli from both eyes, using both hemespheres.
Primary visual area
What area interprets the image and relates it to images in memory for recognition?
Visual association area
The cerebrum has both ____tracts and ____ matter areas.
white matter

gray
The coraonal radiata brings impulses to and from the ______ and from the _____.
cerebral cortex

thalamus
The internal capsule consist of fibers which connects the ____ with the _____ and _________ tracts.
cerebral cortex

basal nuclei

corticospinal tracts
The _____ consists of a group of structures (both gray and white) which in various ways modify motor functions comming from the cerebral cortex.
basal nuclei
Structues of the basal nuclei include the ____, ____ and ____, and it connects to the ____ and _____.
caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus

substantia nigra and amygdaloid nucleus
The substantia nigra is actually part of the __________.
midbrain
The _____ function in association with the corticospinal system to control complex patterns of motor activity.
basal nuclei
When there is serious damage to the basal nuclei the ______ can no longer provide the patterns for many skilled and reptitive actions, included are; writing letters of the alphabet, using scissors, hammering nails, controlled eye movement, etc.
motor cortex
Circuits connect the basal nuclei with the motor assciation areas, sensory association areas and the motor cortex in loops which provide both ______ and _____ feedback.
positive and negative
The basal nuclei utilize a wide range of _________?
neurotransmitters
Some of the neurotransmitters used by the basal nuclei are? In additon there are multiple _____ pathways which provide most of the excitatory signals with the basal nuclei.
GABA(gamma amino butyric acid)and dopamine (both are inhibitory transmitters)

Ach, norepinephrine, serotonin, and enkephalin (excititroy and inhibitory transmitters)

glutamate pathways
Withing the basal nuclei are multiple glutamate pathways which provide most of the ______________ signals.
excitatory
_____ disease is caused by destruction of dopamine secreting cells (lack of inhibitory signals)in the ______ which send impulses to the _____ and _____.
Parkinson's disease

substantia nigra

caudate nucleus and putamen
Parkinsons disease causes tremors and rigidity, also akinesia occurs, or lack of the ability to perform willful movements. It is caused by the loss of _______ impulses from the dopamine secreting cells.
inhibitory
Treatments for Parkinson's Disease include?
1) use of L-dopa which is converted into dopamine in the brain
2) transplanted fetal dopamine cells and genetically engineered dopamine cells
3) the use of a MAO inhibitor Deprenyl (mono amine oxidase) this breaks down dopamine cells
Huntington's disease is caused by a _____ mutation of an enzyme-producing gene. This results in loss of _____ secreting neurons in the basal nuclei, and in loss of ___neurons in may parts of the brain.
genetic

GABA

ACH
The _____ connects the hemispheres of the brain.
corpus callosum
The ____ also connects the hemisphers of the brain and is also a part of the limbic system.
fornix
The ____ is a membrane which covers the opening into the lateral ventricle.
septum pellucidum
The _____ has two halves connected by the intermediate mass.
Thalamus
The thalamus receives all _______ sensations and acts as a _______ center?
Conscious

Relay
Sensations from the spinothalamic tract and the faserculus gracilis and cuneatus synapse in the _______ before continuing to the cortex.
Thalamus
________ inpulses are routed by the thalamus to their proper destinations.
Afferent
The thalamus lies at the top of the ______ and is part of the alert mechanism of the ________?
reticular formation

reticular activating system
The thalamus also helps to filter unwanted _______.
stimuli
The ______ is a small yet very important part of the brain below the thalamus.
Hypothalamus
The hypothalamus is part of the control mechanism for many of the ______ glands.
endocrine
The hypothalamus in connection with the _______ and through the _____ directs the pituitary's secretions, and in turn many endocrine glands.
pituitry gland

infundibulum
The ______ also coordinates many autonomic and visceral functions such as control of blood glucose, heart rate, and respiration in response to stresses control of thermoregulation, the perciptions of hunger, thirst, control of electrolytes and water balance, and the sleep-wake cycle.
hypothalamus
The _____ is considered part of the _____ and receives stimuili from the hpothalamus.
pineal gland

epithalamus
The _____ gland secretes ______ during the dark periods.
pineal gland

melatonin
The pineal gland secreation of melatonin establishes our _____ and regulates our circadian rhythm which affects sleeping, eating, sexual desire, etc.
biological clock
Individuals who receive insufficent light, may experience _____ disorder.
seasonal affective
The midbrain is comprised of the ______ and ______.
corporal quadrigemina

cerebral peduncles
The _____ is the center for the vital functions of heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure.
Medulla
The medulla is also the connection site for nerves _____ as well as ____, ____, ____, and ____.
VIII

IX, X, XI, and XII
The _____ are part of the medulla.
pyramids
The medulla stimulates the muscles of _____ and controls the breathing rhythm. It regulates the _____ rate and volume and controls _____ pressure and overall blood distribution.
respiration

heart

blood
The _____ coordinates the skeletal muscles, and recieves unconscious proprioception as well as input from the higher motor centers.
cerebellum
From the unconscious preprioception inputs the _____ monitors muscle contractions and planned muscle contractions and maintains a constantly adapting system to coordinate them.
Cerebellum
The ________ lies above the corpus callosum, and connects the system to the cerebral cortex.
cingulate gyrus
The limbic system is usually considered as composed of the following?
Cingulate gyrus
hypothalamus
mamillary body
hippocampus
amygdaloid nucleus
thalamus
fornix
The _____ areas of the brain are comprised of areas that work together to perform certain but are not related structurally.
Functional (conceptual)
The _____ contains memory pathways, especially for olfaction.
Mamillary body
The ____ is the center for many emotional response pathways.
amygdaloid nucleus
The functions of the Limbic system sometimes called the emotional brain is the site of?
1)Emotional states and behavior

2)The vridge between the conscious and subconscious brain.

3)Short term memory and information storage, especially short term recognition of facts, objects, people, etc.
The _____ formation is a brainstem pathway which receives sensory input of many types including vision, auditory, and somatic senses.
Reticular

The retecular formation also directs these stimuli to the thalamus as part of the Reticular Activating System which is an alert system for make the cortex. This allows unwanted and unimportant stimuli to be filtered out, while making us aware of important and critical stimuli.
Cerebrospinal fluid is reabsorbed into the bloodstream and this occurs in pockets of arachnoid tissue which invaginate into the large vein called the _________?
superior sagittal sinus
Projection areas are regions of the cortex where specific motor or sensory activity is localized. The ______ is the PRIMARY MOTOR AREA. It is the center for voluntary control of the skeletal muscles.
pre-central gyrus
Seasonal affective disorder can be alleviated by lights which stimulates the ______.
retina
The Prefrontal cortex also exerts control over other areas,those responsible for emotions and stress control, and is thus thought to be the center for ______. It is also responsible in part for _____ and some aspects of memory.
self-control, reasoning

personality
The _____ consists of fibers which connect the cortex with the basal nuclei and corticospinal tracts.
internal capsule.
The _____ contains the pleasure, reward, or satiety center and mediates hormonal responses to stress.
hypothalamus
The _____ is responsible for short and long term memory and learning.
Hippocampus
The _____ is the bridge to the higher brain. However, its main functions are part of the regulation of the rate and depth of resperation. It also contains the CNS connections for nerves ____, ____, ____, and _____.
pons

V, VI, VII, and VIII
The _____ is the sensory center for input which stimulates emotions.
thalamus
The _____ provides connecting pathways for the limic system from one hemisphere to the other.
fornix
The ______ consistes of fibers (white matter tracts) which bring impulses to and from the cerebral cortex from the thalmus.
corona radiata (composed of both gray and white matter)(it gets its name from its shape which radiates outward like a fan)
The _________ connects the lateral with the third ventricle, the _______ connects the third and fourth ventricles.
Interventricular foramen

Cerebral aqueduct
The corporal quadrigemina (four bodies, twins) are the _____, the center for visual reflexes and the ______ the center for auditory reflexes (contraction for the stapedius muscle).
superior colliculi

inferior colliculi
The hemispheres normally divide up the tasks with one hemisphere, usually the ____, being dominant. This is the principle of _____ and _____.
left

lateralization and dominance
The right hemisphere is the center for _____, and _____ endevors.
emotions and artistic
________ disease begins with flicking movements at joints which progress to severe distortinal movements of the entire body leading eventually to severe dementia.
Huntington's