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76 Cards in this Set

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What is ecology?
The scientific study if the interactions amoung organisms and between organisms and their enviorment
What does the biosphere contain?
The combined portions of the planet in which all life exist, include land, water and air or atmosphere
Why do ecologists ask questions about events and organisms that range in complexity from an individual to a biosphere?
To understand relationship within the biosphere
Species
a group of organisms so similar to one another that they bread and produced fertile offspring
Population
a group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
Community
differnt populations living toghether in one defined area
Ecosystem
where you mix living and non-living things, and theyre living together
Biome
A group of ecosystems that have the same climate and dominant communities
What is the highest level of organization that ecologist study?
biosphere
What are three basic approaches scientiist use to conduct modern ecological research
a. observation
b. expieriment
c. modeling
Why might an ecologist set up an artificial enviroment in a labrotory?
To use it for educational purposes and for observations
Why are many ecological phenomena difficult to study?
Becuase it may not happen often, its only during a perid of time, may be dangrous
Why do ecologists make models?
To make it easier to learn, for educational purposes
Is the following sentence true or false? An ecological model may consist of a mathmatical formula
True
What is the core of every organism's interaction with the enviroment?
Its need for energy to power life's processes
What source of energy do organisms that don't use the suns energy?
autorophs
What are autotrophs
Only plants, some algea and certain bacteria can capture energy and produce their own food
Why are autotrophs also called producers
Because they capture energy and produce their own food
What do autrophs do during photosynthesis
use light energy and produce their own food
Which kind of autroph is the main producer of land
plants
Which kind of autroph is the main producer of the upper layers of the ocean
algea
Which kind of autroph is the main producer of tidal flats and salt marshes?
bacteria
What is chemosynthesis?
When orgainisms use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates
Where do bacteria that carry out chemosynthesis live?
such as volcanic vents, deep ocean floor and hot springs in yellow stone park
Heterotrophs are also called
consumers
Herbivor is a type of heterotroph give an example and definition
eats only plants

example: cows, rabbits
Carnivores is a type of heterotroph give an example and definition
heterotroph that eats animals

ex. snakes, dogs and owls
Omnivore is a type of heterotroph give an example and definition
eat both plants and animals

ex. humans, bears, crows
Detritivore is a type of heterotroph give an example and definition
feed on plant and animal remains

ex. mites, earthworms, snails, crabs
Decomposer is a type of heterotroph give an example and definition
Breaks down organisms matter

ex.bacteria and fungi
Plants and animal remains and other dead matter are collectively called what?
detritus
how does energy flow through an ecosystem ?
In one direction from the sun or inorganic compiunds to autotophs (producers and then to various hetertroph consumers )
Food Chain
A series of steps in which orgainisms transfers energy by eating and being eaten
Food Web
When feeding relationships amoung the various organisms in an ecosystem form a network
What does a food web link together
the tropic level
What is a tropic level
each step in a food chain
In a food web, what organisms make up the first trophic level
producers
WHat does a consumer in a food chain depend on for energy
On the trophic land below it for energy
What is an ecological pyramid
a diagram that shows the relative amounts of energu or matter contained with in each tropical level in a food chain or food web
Why is that the only pary of the energu stored in one trophic level is passed on to the next level?
Organisms use about 10% of thsi energy for life process, the rest is lost as heat
Third level consumers
0.1%
2nd level consumers
1%
1st level consumers
10%
What is biomass?
The total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level
What does a biomass pyramid represent?
The amount of living organic matter at each tropic level
What source of energy do organisms that don't use the suns energy?
autorophs
What are autotrophs
Only plants, some algea and certain bacteria can capture energy and produce their own food
Why are autotrophs also called producers
Because they capture energy and produce their own food
What do autrophs do during photosynthesis
use light energy and produce their own food
Which kind of autroph is the main producer of land
plants
Which kind of autroph is the main producer of the upper layers of the ocean
algea
Which kind of autroph is the main producer of tidal flats and salt marshes?
bacteria
What is chemosynthesis?
When orgainisms use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates
Where do bacteria that carry out chemosynthesis live?
such as volcanic vents, deep ocean floor and hot springs in yellow stone park
Heterotrophs are also called
consumers
Herbivor is a type of heterotroph give an example and definition
eats only plants

example: cows, rabbits
Carnivores is a type of heterotroph give an example and definition
heterotroph that eats animals

ex. snakes, dogs and owls
Omnivore is a type of heterotroph give an example and definition
eat both plants and animals

ex. humans, bears, crows
Detritivore is a type of heterotroph give an example and definition
feed on plant and animal remains

ex. mites, earthworms, snails, crabs
Decomposer is a type of heterotroph give an example and definition
Breaks down organisms matter

ex.bacteria and fungi
What source of energy do organisms that don't use the suns energy?
autorophs
What are autotrophs
Only plants, some algea and certain bacteria can capture energy and produce their own food
Why are autotrophs also called producers
Because they capture energy and produce their own food
What do autrophs do during photosynthesis
use light energy and produce their own food
Which kind of autroph is the main producer of land
plants
Which kind of autroph is the main producer of the upper layers of the ocean
algea
Which kind of autroph is the main producer of tidal flats and salt marshes?
bacteria
What is chemosynthesis?
When orgainisms use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates
Where do bacteria that carry out chemosynthesis live?
such as volcanic vents, deep ocean floor and hot springs in yellow stone park
Heterotrophs are also called
consumers
Herbivor is a type of heterotroph give an example and definition
eats only plants

example: cows, rabbits
Carnivores is a type of heterotroph give an example and definition
heterotroph that eats animals

ex. snakes, dogs and owls
Omnivore is a type of heterotroph give an example and definition
eat both plants and animals

ex. humans, bears, crows
Detritivore is a type of heterotroph give an example and definition
feed on plant and animal remains

ex. mites, earthworms, snails, crabs
Decomposer is a type of heterotroph give an example and definition
Breaks down organisms matter

ex.bacteria and fungi
Why can each trophic level support only about one tenth the amount of living tissue as the level below it?
Because each tropic level hearvest only about one teneth of the energy from the level below