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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Neuron
Basic unit of the nervous system
Sensory neuron
A neuron that responds to input from Sense organs
Motor neuron
Sends signals to muscles to control movement
Interneuron
Neuron conected to other neurons
Brain circuit
A set of neurons that affect each other
Axon
Sending end of the neuron
Terminal button
Structure at the end of a branch o an axon that when the neuron is triggered, releases chemicals into the space between neurons
Dendrite
The reelike part of a neuron that receives messages from the axons of other neurons
Resting potential
The NEGATIVE charge within a neuron when it is at rest
Ion
an atom that has a positive or negative charge
Action potential
The shifting change in charge that moves down the axon
All or none Law
States that if the neuron is sufficiently stimulated, it fires sending the action potential all the way down the axon and releasing chemical from the terminal buttons , either the action potential occurs or not
Myelin
Protective coat that permits impulse to travel
Synapse
The place where an axon of one neuron can send signals to the membrane on a dendrite or cell body of another neuron
Synaptic cleft
Chemical that carries a signal from the terminal button on one neuron to the dendrite or cell body of another
Neuromodulator
A chemical that alters the effect of a neurotransmitter
Endogenous cannabinoids
Neuromodulators released by the receiving neuron that then influence the activity of the sending neuron
Agonist/ Antagonist
Chemicals that mimics or blocks the effect of a neurotransmitter by invading a receptor
Glial cell
A type of cell that surrounds neurons, infulences communications among them and cares and feeds neurons
PNS
Peripheral Nervous System
The autonomic nervous system and the sensory somatic nervous system
Autonomic Nervous System
ANS
Controls the smooth muscles in the body some glandular funcions and many of the bodys selfregulating activities such as digestion and circulation
Symppathetic Nervous System
Part of ANS
Fight or flight
Parasympathetic Nervous System
PArt of ANS
relaxation mode
Sensory Somatic Nervous System
SSNS
Part of the PNS that consists of neurons in the sensory organs that convey information to the brain as well as neurons that actually trigger muscles and glands
Skeletal System
Nerves that are attached to striated muscles (Estriado )
Spinal ord
The flexible rope of nerves that runs inside the backbone or spinal column
Central Nervous System CNS
The spinal chord and brain
Cerebral cortex
The convoluted pinkish gray outer layer of the brain where most mental processes take palce
Sulcus
A crease in the cerebral cortex
Gyrus
A bulge between sulci in the cerebral cortex
Subcortical structures
Parts of the brain located under the cerebral cortex and beneath the ventricles
Occipital lobe
In the back of the head:
VISION
Temporal Lobe
The lobe under the temples in fron of the ears
VISUAL MEMORY AND HEARING
Parietal Lobe
Upper part behind the ears

REGISTERIN G SPATIAL LOCATION, ATTENTION AND MOTOR CONTROL
Somatosensory strip
Homunculus
Behind central sulcus
Frontal lobe
planning, memory search, motor control, and reasoning etc
Motor strip
OR
Primary motor cortex
in front of central sulcus
controls FINE MOVEMENTS AND is organized by body part
PRIMARY MOTOR CORTEX
Forebrain
Cortex
Thalamus
lymbic system
basal ganglia
thalamus
receives from motor and sensory systems

ATTENTION (switching center)
sleep control
hypothalamus
controls eating and drinking and temperature, blood pressure,heart rate
Hippocampus
Allows new info to be stored
Amygdala
almond shaped
Emotions fear and anger
read facial expressions

LIMBIC SYSTEM
Limbic System
hippocampus amygdala

fighting fleeing feeding and sex
Basal ganglia
planning and producing movement
Medulla
Lowest part of lower brainstem

automatic control of breathing swallowing and blood circulation
Reticular formation
Ascending awake

Descending part of ANS
Cerebellum
a large structure at the base of brain concerned in part with physical coordination , estimating time and paying attention
Pons
Bridge betw brainstem and cerebellum
sleep to control of facial muscles
HINDBRAIN
Medulla
Pons
cerebellum
parts of reicular formation
Midbrain
Brainstem structures that lie between foerbrain and hindbrain including partos of Reticular formation
Hormone
chemical that is produced by a gland and can act as neurotransmitter
Neuroendocrine stystem
System regulated by CNS that makes hormones that affect funcions and provides CNS with info
Pituitary gland
Master gland regulates other ones but controlled by brain (hypothalamus)
Hypothalamic ,pituitary adrenal axis
(HPA)
work together against infection
Electroencephalograph
machine that records electrical curent produced by brain
EEG Electroencephalograph
recording from scalp of electrical activity
MEG
Magnetoencephalography
recordes magnetic waves
Neuroimaging
Brain scanning techniques to see structure or funcioning of neurons
Computer assisted tomography CT (CAT
Neuroimaging that produces a 3 dimensional image of brain structures using X rays
Magnetic resonance imaging
MRI
Magnetic properties of atoms to take sharp pictures of the structure of brain
Positron emission tomography
radioactive substance to track blood flow or energy consumption in brain
fMRI functional MRI
ammount of oxygen brought to a particular place in the brain while a task is performed
TMS
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
stimulation from outside delivering a magnetic pulse through a wire coil into brain. This makes neurons fire.
Pruning
conections among neurons are eliminated
Plasticity
brains ability to be molded by experience
Passive interaction
environment in family is passively received by child
Evocative interaction
Genetic characteristics draw out behavior from other people

Blonds
Active interaction
Choice to put yourself in a specific situation based on genetic tendencies
Behavioral genetics
tries to establish if differences among people are due to environment or genetics
Heritability
the degree to which variabilty is a characteristic due to genetics