Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

104 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Why was Sumer a good place for the emergence of civilization?
Civilization is a learned state. Sumer was a good place for emergence for civilization because of the need to concentrate and organize population in order to carry on the extensive irrigation systems. It had both good and bad characteristics like the lack of stone and timber, but had lots of lush land that needed irrigating.
Why is it no longer possible to be suer about the origins of the first civilization?
Most of the things that are the components of civilization (writing, bronze, etc.) seem to have first been done in ancient near east, but radiocarbon idea may have been flawed, and other places farther away may have had these same characteristics. We cant figure out who had it first.
How did the Ancient Near East view religion's role in everyday life?
Religion helped control and regulate social behavior in the ancient near east. It was the foundation for everything and there was a god for everything.
What are the benefits of the pagan Near East's concept of hierogamy?
If gods are in charge of everything, then everything is being judged and you have to care about everything that you do and to do it at your best.
How does hierogamy limit achievement in the Ancient World?
They feel that imitating the gods is all you need to do, and you should not try and push your luck with the gods. Inventions were usually accidental.
Why may the Hebrews be called the first people with a true historical perspective? What does this perspective have to do with the idea of progress?
Hebrews believed in an actual beginning and everything moves from that beginning, not a cycle. This allowed for progressing or regressing.
How does polytheism limit world conquest?
Polytheism was based on separation because everyone had different gods. Territorially, you can’t leave your god or your signal will get weak with him and he cannot protect or guide you.
How does polytheism lead to henotheism and consequent empire building?
If my god is the god of gods, then I should be the man of men. It leads people wanting to rule over others.
Why did the Dorian invaisons produce the Greek "dark ages"?
The Dorian invasion was assumed to be around near 1200 BC in southern modern day Greece. They did it little at a time, and broke up the Greek unification. They lose the ability to write. Basically, we don’t know what happens during this period so it is dark. 1200-700 BC
How did the risin power of the Dorian families endanger teh position of the basileus?
The citizen body began to run the land instead of a king. The king began to lose his special attributes because everyone else had those same attributes especially when looking at those that fought in the many battles. Aristocracy.
How did the Greek aristocrats perpetuate theri power once they had superseded the king?
When Aristocrats were in charge of the city-state, they realized when people weren’t surviving well they had to appease them or there would be revolution. They broke the population up. Apoikia- colonization through western colonies.
How did miliary innovation lead ot the downfall of the Greek aristocracy?
Once Aristocracy had power, they wanted to stay in charge and they tried to keep the wealth. But the military did a lot of work to make them free because military troop becomes citizen body. Phalanx.
Once a citizen body emerged, why did the Greeks try to restrict in size?
Too big is too hard to manage. And they wanted to avoid one man rule again.
Why did the Greeks despise Persian rule while most of the Ancient Near East welcomed it?
Persians were an empire and perspective was key. Rules for Greeks seemed crazy because they were not used to rules at all, so Persians felt the need for conquering
Why was Persia a difficult foe to overcome?
Persia was extremely wealthy. Military seemed never ending.
How did Aristotle influence Alexander's world state?
Aristotle thought everything ought to work as a whole, and that is what Alexander tried to establish.
How did Alexander the Great prepare the way for Chritianity?
Alexander helps to give the idea that the ancient world that all people are alike and this led to the thought that everyone had the same god.
How did the political fate of Alexander's empire aid the rise of Rome and Carthage?
Everyone was trying to out-do the other that they didn’t notice Carthage and Rome develop and out do them.
Why did Rome and Carthage clash?
They both wanted Sicily
What were the problems that Rome inherited along with Carthaginian and Greek territories?
They had to guard the borders full time with a part time army, with little money.
Why is Marius significant in the decline of the Roman Republic?
He created a new Roman army illegally by inviting non Roman citizens in Egypt and Gaul. Army becomes a subculture and they become loyal to their commander instead of their king.
Why was Julius Caesar assasinated?
Resettled Carthage, Put Gaul’s citizens in Senate, Wore Purple Togas, Sat on Golden Throne, Put face on coins, Allowed self to be worshipped, Consolidated all government positions
How did Octavian take over?
Octavian zapped all his opponents, and he said he was going to restore the republic, but behind the scenes he was building up his power manipulatively.
Why was Rome on the verge of collapse in the 3rd century?
Barbarians are at the gates, plagues, and their economy/tax system was out of whack and once they stopped conquering they could not make a balance with all their taxes. Poor become poorer and rich remain rich.
Why did Rome persecute Christians? Why was this persecution sporadic until 250 AD?
They say them as unpatriotic, and they were easy to blame when things got bad
How did Constantine come to power? What did this mean for Christians?
He happened to be the son of the number two guy in the west…lucky genetics. Opened up Christianity but he didn’t know what it meant to be Christian.
a discovery of a man from over 5000 years ago. He was found frozen in the Italian Alps.
“Between the rivers” – Need drove the inhabitants of this area; fertile soil, but no rain; or poor soil, but much rain; irrigation systems were necessary but could be harmful to soil; no metals, workable stones, or valuable minerals- these problems lead the people to cooperate, innovate, and organize measure for survival, and survival required planning and the mobilization of labor, only possible through centralization
first true system of writing created by wedge shapes
tiered tower dedicated to the god stood near many temples
Sargon of Akkad
king of Akkad and the most important figure in Mesopotamian history; he reigned 55 years; created the first great multiethnic empire state in the West
Code of Hammurabi
addresses professional behavior of physicians, veterinarians, architects, boat builders; offers a view of many aspects of Babylonian life (from royal perspective); lists offenses and mandates penalties; was organized to legally pertain to three social classes: well-to-do elites, mass population, slaves
expanded control over the fragmented south, uniting lower and upper Egypt adn establishing a capital at Memphis between these two regions
New Kingdom
(1560-1087 BCE) Amenhotep IV challenged the basis of royal religious control and has said to first introduce monotheism
People of Babylon under the Code of Hammurabi
“Rulers of foreign land”- overran Egypt and ruled the Nile Valley, but they adopted the traditions of Egypt including Divine Rule
first called Amenhotep IV (1364- 1347 BCE)- most controversial and enigmatic ruler of the New Kingdom; challenged the basis of religious control; Amenhotep changed name to Akhenaten and was called the first monotheist
an Indo-European people; Capital was Hattushash; Among the earliest to succeed in smelting iron; Perfected the light horse-drawn chariot; Chief political and cultural force in Asia form 1400-1200 BCE
Tiglath-Pileser III
greatest empire builder of Mesopotamia since Sargon; transformed the structure of the Assyrian state and expanded its empire
Cyrus II
King of Persia who took the cit of Babylon by surprise; began the process of conquest and expansion west into Asia Minor, absorbing the kingdom of Lydia and conquering Ionia on the coast of Asia Minor
The culture of Crete in the Middle Bronze Age (2000-1550 BCE) in which elites based at great palaces, such as Knossos, dominated the island politically, economically, and religiously
Linear B
a syllabic form of writing from the late Greek Bronze Age which preserves the earliest known form of Greek. It was used by Mycenaean elites almost entirely for record keeping
The city-state of Archaic and Classical Greece, particularly found on the shores of the Aegean. A city formed the center of government (tyranny, oligarchy, or democracy) and of religious life with temples on its citadel (acropolis)
Late Greek Bronze Age that arose ca 1600 BCE at Mycenae and that encompassed the Greek mainland and parts of Asia Minor. Mycenaeans developed the Linear B script
in Archaic Greece, armed infantry soldiers
Persian Wars
Where Persia attempted to take over all of Greece, but was defeated by Athens
A practice in Athenian democracy by which anyone deemed to threaten the constitution could, by popular vote, be exiled for ten years without the loss of property
a great orator and successful miliarty commander who led Athens during the decades of its greatest glory
Peloponnesian War
series of wars and rebellions that began between Sparta and Athens, but breeched out between various city-states, and even Persia
decentralized ethne ruled by traditional hereditary chieftains and monarchs; northeast mainlnad Greece; spoke a Greek dialect; identified with Greek culture and tradition; movied into power vacuum after Peloponnesian War
Darius III
Persian king defeated by Alexander the Great
followers of the Hellenistic Grek philosophy propounded by Zeno, which teaches that orderliness is proper to the universe and that happiness derives from embracing one's divinely ordained role and unhappiness from rejecting it
Baal Hammon
Carthage god that was a variation of Phoenician god; the supreme god of El fo the Semitic world
People native to Italy who infulenced the formation of the Roman state
Alban League
8th century BC- about 40 Latin villages formed this loose confederation for military and religious purposes
Latin League
seven Latin villages along the route from teh Tiber to Alba had formed a league for mutual defense and shared religious cults
Carhaginian general who built his army by collecting barbarinas and surprising Rome
organized gladiator slave revolt led by Spartacus and consisted of 100,000 slaves; after the defeat of the revolt, crucified rebels lined the road from Rome to Naples
Patricians & Plebians
Leaders of the gentes, or clans, in early Roman society: lower class
Law of the Twelve Tablets
recognized the basic rights of all free citizens
the male head of household in the Roman family. His power was absolute, including the power of life and death
the traditionalists Roman political faction that succeeded the Gracchi and sought to preserve the senatorial oligarchy against the populares
The roman political faction that succeed the Gracchi whose leaders appealed to the masses as a source of power
big estates that were given to publicans because they could not pay their taxes
Tiberius & Gaius Gracchus
tried to broaden the influence of all citizens
"First citizen"; the title assumed by the emperor Augustus to reassure public opinion by preserving the traditional constitutional forms
grand nephew of Caesar- “Augustus Caesar”- was chosen to be his heir; wants to restore the republic, and become dictator
reflected the strengths and weaknesses of the republican tradition; developed a lifelong attachment to Stoic philosophy and developed the oratory skills necessary for a yougn Roman destined for public life
ritual meals that was center of Christian worship
wrote Confessions, the first psychological autobiography
first profession
Christian Thomsen
Head of Museum of Denmark: Three Ages (Stone, Bronze, Iron)
Colin Renfrew
Radiocarbon Revolution
Demise Schmandt
trinkets in a ball-first form of writing
closed ball that held trinkets and started writing with shipments
tenant farmer of the gods
sacred union
Mircea Eliade
explained hierogamy that everything is under the gods and it was necessary to seek ultimate imitation
Enuma Elish
Every spring Babylon read this as recreation
Max Muller
german scholar
belief in many gods, but one god gets special allegiance
Shar Kishshati
conqueror of 4 realms of the world (gods)
king of kings
Ahura Mazda
god of gods
Greek contributions
Democracy, Homer, Secular
invasion of Myceneans little at a time, adn creates bout 1500 little civilizations; leads to dark period
contractual king
mythological person
best men
"from the family"-told to go out so population can be controlled
infantry formation of tightly packed shields and spears moving as one unit
"the equals"-in phalanx everyone is hte smae and no one is better than another
Man power
lineage, wealth, miliary control
world entity or state-unite all people
Good Roman
Brave, Reverant, hardworking
Punic War
between Rome and Carthage, Rome wanted for national security
Senatus Populusque Romanos
Senate and the people of Rome
Gaius Marius
general that seemed to be a serious threat, so they sent him to North Africa where he build non citizen army
allows Christianity to become accepted
2 main rulers in east and west
2 secondary rulers in east and west
Milvian Bridge
Constantine defeats Maxentius
sign of Christ