• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/81

Click to flip

81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Who couldn't control the forces unleashed by Luther?
No one person could control the forces unleashed by Luther, certainly not Luther himself.
What was the consequence of not being able to control forces unleashed by Luther?
The consequence was that various diverging views that agreed with Luther on some points but disagreed on others arose.
What 4 groups could Protestant theology in the 16th century be classified into?
1. the Lutherans
2. the Reformed
3. the Antabaptists
4. the Anglicans
Who was the earliest theologian in the Reformed tradition?
Ulrich Zwingli
Who furthered the development of Lutheranism?
Melanchthon
WHo was the one who did reformed theoloty?
John Calvin
How did Zwingli and Luther differ most noticeably?
The most noticeable way they differed was the manner in which each came to their basic convictions. Luther followed an anguished spiritual pilgrimage dealing with relationship by God. Zwingli was led by patriotic and intellectual considerations.
Where did Zwingli's patriotism come from?
It aroused by the practice of mercenary service, which was one of the main sources of income for many swiss towns and villages.
What was one of the main sources of income for many Swiss towns and villages?
Mercenary service
What reputation did the Swiss earn for themselves?
The swiss enjoyed the reputation of being brave and solid soldiers, and capitalized on that reputation by selling their services to foreign princes.
Why wasn't mercenary life conducive to the highest of moral standards?
MErcenary soldiers had to supplement their income by looting. Zwingli himself supported the practice of mercenary service, and profited from it economically.
When did Zwingli began attacking the practice of mercenay service?
AFter the battle of Marginano where large numbers of Swiss soldiers died for an unworthy cause not their own and others simply sold themselves to Francis I for a higher price.
What kind of overtones did Zwingli reform have?
Zwingli's reform always had political and national overtones.
What impact do Zwinglis' political and national overtones have on his view of the Gospel?
This can be sseen in his insistence that the law of the gospel is not only for individual Christians but that states are also expected to obey it.
What is fitting about the way Zwingli died?
It was fitting and symbolic that Zwingli, whose first frictions with the established church were the result of hs concern for the honor of his country and the lives of its soldiers, should die at the battle of Cappel, where he had accompanied the troops of Zurich as their chaplian.
Where did Zwingli die?
BAttle of Cappel
Where did Zwingli's intellectual interest go?
They ran along the lines of Erasmian humanism.
Where did Zwingli study?
Vienna and Basel
WHo did he study under?
He studied under Thomas Wyttenbach Who questioned indulgences before Luther.
WHo captivated the mind of Zwingli?
Erasmus
Who was Zwingli fortunate enough to meet
At Basel he met Erasmus his hero.
What was Zwingli involved in?
He became involved in the political and military considerations connected with the defense of the reformation in the Protestant cantons. He abandoned the pascifist position of Erasmus.
Who wrote a treaty attacking Erasmus?
Ulrich von Hutten took refuge in Zurich and wrote a treatise attacking Erasmus. Erasmus blamed Zwingli for the protection Zurich gave him. THis ended Erasmus and Zwingli's friendship.
What was Luther's view on scripture?
Scripture above tradition
How did Zwingli approach the scriptures?
As a Christian Humanist.
Why did Zwingli return to the Bible?
His return to the Bible was part of the general return to the sources that characterized the humanist movement.
How did he think we could discover the rue nature of Christiantiy?
Was to discover the message of scripture and apply it to the renewal of Christianity.
WHy was the Bible important for Zwingli?
BEcause the bible had historical priority and also beacuse it is inspired.
What did Zwingli state about how to understand SCripture?
HE says it is impossible to understand Scripture apart from divine guidance. His interpretation is less allegorical than customary.
How does he understand the Word of God in addition to the Scriptures?
In addition he understands it as the creative action ofGod The whole course of nature must be fulfilled. Scriptures are an expression of that word and are infallible and certain to be fulfilled.
Where does Zwingli think we can get assurance?
HE thinks that you should listen to the certainty of the Word of God.
How can we know the existence of God?
It can be known through Scripture and also through reason.
Where does Zwingli think knowledge of what god is comes from?
HE thinks knowledge of WHAT god is comes only through divine revelation, in Scripture.
How far removed does he believe our knowledge of God is?
HE says our knowledge of God is so far removed from God that in comparison a beetle knows more about us than we know about God.
How are we to understand God?
We, to whom God himself has spoken through his Son and the H.S. are to seek these things not from those who were puffed up with Human wisdom but from the divine oracles.
Where does Zwingli want to draw his entire theology?
HE wants to draw his entire theology from Scripture.
What is the problem with Zwingli taking his entire theology from scripture?
HE says he wants to take it from Scripture but then he goes on to discuss the nature of God, most of his arguments seem to be taken from philosophers rather than SCripture.
How does humanism work in Zwingli's theology?
the need to return to the sources points in the direction of the sole authority of Scripture, but the humanistic appreciation for antiquity makes him see a great deal of agreement between Scripture and the best of antiquity.
What is Zwingli's notion of God closely connected with?
The notion of the absolute.
What are his arguements for monotheism based on?
HIs arguments for monotheism are based not so much on Scripture as on the claim that the existence of more than one absolute being as a logical impossibility. Therefore the biblical assertion that All things are in God is to be taken very literally.
How is the assertion that all things in God to be taken?
It is to be taken very literally meaning that nothing is hidden from Him, nothing unknown to Him, nothing beyond His reach, nothing disobedient to him.
What is the only thing we can do about God's creation?
All that we can do with God's creation with all its seeming contradictions is to accept it and believe that all these things are done on the basis of a plan that God's infinite wisdom has not wished to reveal to us.
What is the doctrine of providence according to Zwingli?
The doctrine of providence is not merely the affirmation that we can trust God for our sustenance and well-being, but also the assertion that the relationship between God and the world is such that everything takes place through the will of God.
What does Zwingli say about predestination?
HE thinks for the whole business of predestination, free will, and merit rests on providence. God not only knows all but does all.
What if there was something other than predeterminism in Zwingli's eyes?
Anything less than predeterminism would impinge on the sovereignty and wisdom of God.
What was Zwingli's outlook on the fall from grace?
HE believes God knew that some among them would fall. Knew and ordained it. The fall of Satan and Adam and Eve did not happen against the will of God, rather, God wrought both of these things. This doesn't lead to the conclusion that God is evil or doesn't care for creation. It was out of Love God did this so we all might know the true nature of faithfulness and righteousness.
What does Zwingli think salvation is based on?
DIvine election and not any effort on our part.
Since he believes salvation is based on divine election what does he say about works?
Everything that happens, including works, are explained because they are the result of predestination. In those who are elected, God produces good works, and therefore good works are necessary for salvation, not in the sense that they produce it, but in the sense that election is also election to good works.
What does he say about who is elected ad who is not elected?
Those who claim God but abandon him in moments of adversity, are not really among the elect. Those who live in evil are probably among the reprobate, although they may also be among those predestined to salvation whose election has not yet been manifested.
What is one of the most interesting traits in Zwingli theology?
Insistence on God's desire to communicate. As the crown of creation, God made us who can communicate with the divine.
What does he say about the effect our fallen state has on knowing things?
He says because of our fallen state it is impossible for us to know ourselves. We are as difficult to catch as squid, for we too are apt to hide by obscuting the waters when someone is about to catch us.
What do we need divine relelation to know?
WE need it to know God, but also to know ourselves. The reason, is because of the fall which consisted in ADam's disobedience for the reason of selv love.
What is the root of all sin?
self love. Adam broke the law by seeking to be like God.
What does Zwingli call sin?
He calls sin a disease.
Why does Zwingli think theologians and hypocrites insist on freedom of choice?
THey don't understand the consequences of original sin. This assertion is not entierly consistent with his other claim that the nature of God precludes free will.
What are the 3 distinctions of law according to Zwingli?
1. The eternal law of god, as expressed in moral commandments.
2. The ceremonial law
3. Civil law
What is Zwingli's outlook on eternal law of God?
For him the moral laws of the Old Testament are considered and they are not abolished.
What is civil law
Civil laws deal with particular human situations
Ceremonial laws
These were given for the time before Christ. But the moral law expresses the eternal will of God and therefore cannot be abolished.
What are those who serve Christ bound to?
THey are bound to the law of Love which is the same moral law of the old testament and the natural law inscribed on our hearts.
What points on the law does Zwingli differ from Luther?
1. He believes the law abides (including old testament) and the Gospel in no way contradicts it.
2. The law has to do with their evaluation of it. Zwingli has not experineced feeling damned so he doesn't accept Luther's assertion that the law is terrible and its function is to speak the word of judgement upon us.
What do Luther and Zwingli agree on in regards to the law?
They agree that the gospel is the good news that sins are remitted in the name of Christ/ Zwingli asserts that forgiveness can be received only when one is conscious of one's own wretchedness, altho he assigns this function to the Spirit rather than the law. But he insists more than luther on the objective result of the gospel, making us whole and able to obey the law.
What does he say about the will of God and the role of the gospel?
He says the will of god is always the same, and has been revealed in the law. The function of the gospel is to liberate us from the consequences of our having broken the law and to enable us to obey it.
What does he think about Church?
HE says the Church is the company of the elect. Since these won't be clearly manifested until the last day, this church is invisible to human eyes. But the confession of the name of Christ and a life according to his commandments are signs of election.
What does he say about the CHurch
He says the Church is the bride of Christ and can be called spotless. The CHurch cannot err because it is predestined to be obedient to God.The contrast between the visible and invisible Church is an attemopt to show how the Church can be at once the number of elect when the election has not been clearly manifested.
What does he say about a visible cHurch?
The visible cHurch is to be a sign of the invisible and as the proclamation of the gospel. Has to discipline its ranks.
What are Zwingli's teachings on excommunication?
HE says no single person can excommunicate another but a congregation as a whole may do so in the case of an open sinner. This doesn't affect the sinner's relationship with God because that is a matter of election.If at a later date the sinner gives signs of election they may be readmitted into the Church.
What are his views of Church and state relationshoip?
He sayz there is a closer connection than Luteher did. Although Christian law is higher than civil law, both express divine will, there is no break between them. Zwingli speaks as if they are one body called Church with 2 offices or functions:government and ministry.
What analogy does he use to justify Church and state relationship?
He says just as man is necessarily constituted of both body and soul, the body being lesser, so there can be no Church without government, although government supervises and controls those more mundane circumstances which are far removed from the things of the spirit.
In practice what was Zwingli's government?
theocracy
The 3 views against which Zwingli had to defend in regards to sacraments?
1. Lutheran
2. Catholic
3. Anabaptists
What treatise did he write offering a succinct discussion of general theology of sacraments
On True and False Religion
How did Zwingli differ from CAtholics on sacraments?
He argues from original meaning of the word sacramentum as an act of initiation or a pledge and denies that the sacraments have any power to free the conscience.
What does Zwingli argue against Luther in regards to the sacraments?
HE says sacraments cannot be said to be outward signs of thenature when they are performed an inward event takes place.
What did Zwingli argue against Anabaptists in regards to sacraments?
HE said if sacraments are simply signs of something that has already taken place, they are useless
What does Zwingli teach about the sacraments?
He says they are signs by which a man proves to the CHurch he ams to be or is a soldier of Christ, and informs the whole Church rather than yourself of your faith.
What sacraments does Zwingli believe in??
Baptism and the Lord's supper
What does he believe on baptism?
He says baptism cannot be said to wash away the sins of the baptized. His argument is based on the analogy between circumsicision and baptism as signs of the covenant. Just as the ancients signaled their incorporation into Israel by circumcision, so do Christians signal incorporation into the CHurch by the act of baptism.
What sacrament caused him hte longest debat?
Eucharist
What was the controversy on Lord's supper
He said the common errors must be avoided because they are the beginning of all various forms of idolatry.
What did he think about the Lord's SUpper
He was compelled to insist that Christ wasn't bodily present in the eucharist. The first was his understanding of the relationship between material and spiritual, the second was his view on incarnation. HIs rejection came in part from presupposition that the sacrament to be spirifually profitable, must be purely spiritual. Incarnation he can't accept the notion that human nature became ubiquitous. If Christ is in Heaven his body cannot be elsewhere.