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45 Cards in this Set

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What are the 4 groups of Protestant reformers?
1. Lutherans
2. Reformed (beings with Zwingli and Calvin)
3. Anabaptists
4. Anglicans
Who was Ulrich Zwingli
Swiss reformer from Zurich who was a Christian humanist aligned with Erasmus
What did Ulrich Zwingli want to do?
1. Return to sources - return to new testament Christianity
2. Purify Christian life and worship
Ulrich was equal parts
polititian and theologian
Was concerned about how the troops were being treated. Was a chaplain to troops
How did his experience differ from Luther?
He didn't have a despair experience. Instead he wants to purify the Church so he becomes pastor of Cathedral.
What issue did Zwingli break from the Church on? What was the debate and what happened?
He broke from the Church on the issue of fasting in 1522
There was a debate between Zwingli and the bishop where he makes 67 theses and the city sides with Zwingli
What was Zwingli's view on Sola Scriptura?
Bible is the ONLY source of authority because of inspiration and also because of historical priority. He says scripture can be interpreted by all because of the spirit.
There's no authoritative interpretation of Church. Scripture is interpreted by all.
What criticism does Zwingli make of anti-biblical?
Papacy, intercession of saints, prescribed fasts, monasticism, clerical celibacy, indulgences, and use of images.
Why did Zwingli say no use of images in the CHurch?
He says can't use images because images are material and emphasis must be on the spirit. Images can lead people away so they are dangerous.
What is the inner word?
Faith
What is the outer word?
Scripture and preaching
What does he say about faith?
It is illuminated directly by Christ who speaks directly to the soul. HE rejects official teaching of the Church.
What is the theology of logos?
When we know the things of theology and things of the world.
What is the tension with reason?
He says philosophers can know some things because god reveals himself in creation.
Theology of logos-when we know some things of theology and of the world but scripture is still the sole authority
He makes his arguments based on reason rather than just quotations from the scripture
How does Zwingli argue?
He uses arguments based on reason rather than just quotations from the scripture.
What does Zwingli say about sola fide?
He says based on absolute knowledge of God than on sinfulness of human nature. God knows and predetermines all things. God caused the fall of Adam. The will of God is always right because he is above the law.
What does election do?
Election makes us produce good works because God causes the works in you.
What happens if someone seems to be elect but then it is discovered to be a sinner?
Well they can be thrown out of the Church. But if they are found to be a sinner they could still be elect at the end of life. There's invisibility.
The individual knows by faith that they are saved but others cannot know.
What kind of invisibility does Zwingli think the Church has?
He thinks that the individual knows by faith whether or not they are saved but others cannot know. He says that there's invisibility because we may think a sinner is elect but they aren't or we may think someone is elect who is really a sinner.
What consequence does Sola Fide create for Zwingli's faith?
HE says there is no need to strive for grace. Don't have to do indulgences, fasting ect. No sacrifice of the mass is necessary.
What is the Catholic POV on things?
Catholics believe we are in a spiritual battle so we need grace and because we sometimes fall away we need forgiveness. When we do faith and works and charity we receive help to do good. BEcause of this outlook on salvation 2 sacraments important for CAtholics are reconciliation and eucharist.
Comparison between Zwingli and Luther
No need for any effort to obtain grace.
All is decided by God
Freedom not to choose but freed from guilt of sin.
For Luther and Zwingli what is Christian Freedom?
Freedom not to choose but freed from guilt of sin.
What did Zwingli think about Law and Gospel?
He says moral law has NOT been abolished because it expresses the eternal will of God and the will of God doesn't ever change. Only ceremonial laws are abolished. The Gospel conicides because summarized by commandment of Love.
What law does Zwingli think is abolished?
He believes only law abolished is ceremonial law.
What do Luther and Zwingli differ on in regards to purpose of law?
Luther thinks law shows us our sin.
Zwingli doesn't think this.
What does Zwingli mean when he says church is the co of the elect?
He says it is not manifest until the end of time. There's the individual Church which is spotless and cannot err because it is predetermined and only know to God.
What does Zwingli belivev in regards to the visible Church?
Those who show signs: sacraments and good works. They are to be a sign of the invisible Church so they have an obligation to reject anyone who is sinful and they may excommunicate them.
What does Zwingli think about Church heiarcharchy?
He rejects it because he believes it is an obstacle to the action of the spirit. He also believes in pastors to preach the word of God. They aren't damned but they perform different functions of community.
What are Zwingli's views on Church and state?
HE believes church and state go together because Christian and civil law expresses one divine will. Just like body and spirit do. Everyone has potential to be elect so they should all be in with the law.
What kind of government does Zwingli's view suggest?
Theocracy
What does he think about sacraments?
They are based on sacramentum meaning pledge or oath. Not a pledge of God to us, BUT the pledge we make to others. We show our allegiance ot the Church and the sacraments inform others of our faith. NO causality not a sign of something taking place PURELY a SYMBOL.
Does he believe anything takes place during a sacrament?
NO. Sacraments are purely symbols. All they do is show others signs of our faith.
What sacraments does Zwingli believe in?
baptism and lord's supper.
What is Zwingli's view on baptism?
Believes it doesn't wash away sins. it's just a sign.
Does Zwingli allow infant baptism? WHy or why not?
He does because of old testament circumcision. HE says babies can't make an oath but it's still okay because babies in ancient time had parents who made the decision to be circumsized to become part of the community for them. Same thing here.
How does he think of the mass?
He doesn't think it is a sacrafice.
What does he say the mass is?
HE says it is to be called the Lord's supper and it is ONLY for commemoration. We give thanks and rejoice for past events.
What is the Catholic point of view on the Eucharist?
CAtholics believe we have free will so our sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving.
We are members of his body and our offerings are joined to offerings of Christ. through power and grace we are made through the Church. Christ's sacrifice is united with ours in an unbloddy manner.
Why does Zwingli think there is no sacrifice of the mass?
He says we don't play a role and receive no grace frm the ministry of the CHurch. He says it is an insult to Christ to be newly offered each day because it suggests Christ's sacrifice wasn't sufficient. Zwingli wants to purify worship.
Since it's the Lord's Supper what does he do?
Since Zwingli believes its a supper he replaces the alter with a table.
What is the biggest difference between Zwingli and Luther's teachings on the Eucharist.
Zwingli says NO REAL PRESENCE. it's meant only as a symbol such as saying I am a shepherd. REal presence would be idoltery.
Why does he reject real presence of the Eucharist
1. Spiritualism - Work of creation doesn't deal with the material
2. Incarnation - Sharp division between Christ's nature and division.
Luther rejects real presence for 2 reasons 1. spritiual
God is spirit not matter so it's the spirit which saves us not matter. So real presence doesn't matter.
Luther rejects real presence for 2 reasons 2. Incarnation
Believes in a sharp division between God's 2 natures
1. Human nature
2. Divine nature
Doesn't believe in human and divine nature mix. He says oh the body can't be in 2 places at once.