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90 Cards in this Set

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Who was the most significant Christian theologian of the 16th century?
Martin Luther
What is Martin Luther's Theology closely bound with?
His theology is closely bound up to his life. Can't understand one without the other.
What were the 2 opposing forms of theology Luther was concerned with?
Theoogy of glory and theology of the cross.
What is the difference between a theology of glory and a theology of the cross?
A theology of glory calls evil good and good evil. A theology of the cross calls the thing what it actually is.
According to ML where can God be found? In what type of Theology? Why?
God can only be found in suffering and the cross. IT is impossible for a person not to be puffed up by his good works unless he has first been deflated and destroyed by suffering and evil until he knows he is worthless and his works are not his but God's.
What does Luther argue about a theology of glory?
HE says a theology of glory attempts to see God as manifested in works.
What does Luther argue about a theology of the cross?
A theology of the cross believes God can be rightfully spoken of and worshiped only as seen in suffering and the cross.
Why do all nations have their Gods?
The general or natural knowledge is the reason all races have their God's. They knew that there was divinity above them but they knew not what the divinity was.
What does Luther call the 2 types of knowledge about God?
Legal and evangelical knowledge
From where do we get legal knowledge of God?
Legal knowledge of God is obtained through reason. It is inscribed in our hearts.
Where do we get evangelical knowledge
Evangelical knowledge is knowledge nature knows nothing at all about. This type of knowledge must come from God.
For what 2 reasons does Luther reject the theology of glory?
1. It does not recognize the great difference between the different types of knowledge of God.
2. The theology of glory attempts to see God face to face forgetting tha no man shall see God and live.
What did he believe about human weakness?
He believed human weakness cannot help being crushed by such majesty.
What did Luther reject as necessary for salvation?
He rejected human works as valid for salvation. He rejects moralism. IN rejecting God's works as a means to know the divine he rejects rationalism.
What were Luther's views on the relationship between theology and philosophy?
They were very different from those of the scholastics. He could not accept the Thomistic view according to which faithadds to the natural knowledge of God certain things reason by itself could never have discovered.
What problems did Luther have with reason?
For Luther, reaosn, as well as every other human endowment, bears the mark of the fall, and can only serve in proper function when redeemed. Reason is able to help us in our horizotal life by helping us order society.
What distinguishes us from animals and other things?
reason
How does he think reason after sin should be thought of?
Reason is to be respected as "that most beautiful and most excellent of all creatures" And yet this does not free it from the curse of all things fallen.
What type of knowledge can reason provide?
Reason by itself can attain legal knowledge. Reason itself is thus closely connected with the law.
What are Luther's views on philosophy?
Luther has little use for philosophy in the realm of theology. The subject between theology and philosophy are the same and this means that for Luther there is a relationship between the 2. This relationship exists between the general knowledge and proper evangelical knowledge. They both deal with GOd but see differently and one cannot simply lead to the other
What did luther think of mysticism?
His critique is that he fails to do it justice. He agrees that humility was the only possible attitude before the Godhead. But his reason is the self denial of God n Christ. Mystics emphasis on experience gained a sympathetic hearing from luther, who insisted that what is important is not to know God but that God is "pro me"
What was Luther's humility before God?
Luther's humility before God was not simply of a lesser human being before the Most High, but that of a sinner before the loving holy one.
What does Luther mean by the Word of God?
HE means the Scriptures
What is the Word?
The Word is the eternal second person of the trinity, which existed in God from all eternity; the Word is God's power as manifested in the creation of all things; the Word is the incarnate Lord; the Word is the Scriptures.
How does Luther come up with the concept of the unuttered Word of God? What is it?
After showing how we think words within ourselves before we express them he thinks God too is pregannt with a word or conversation within No one but God alone sees, hears, or comprehends this conversation. But God has also spoken. The Word has been uttered.
What are Luther's views on the Trinity?
He has a perfectly orthodox view on the Trinity.
What is Luther's point of departuer on the Scriptures.
He thinks the value of Scripture is not to add to the Word of Christ because all the Scriptures point to Christ alone. HIs difference is the question of authority of Scripture.
What does Luther say about the authority of Scripture?
Luther says that tradition must be rejected in favor of Scripture. HIs own practice was to reject only those traditional views and practices which contradicted the "clear sense of scripture". His reason for this was he believed tradition had erred and that it had to be brought back to the true meaning of the Gospel through the authority of Scripture.
What does the Catholic Church believe about the authority of the SCripture.
Roman Catholics believe that the Church had created scripture and established its canon, and that this showed that the CHurch had authority over scripture.
What was ML's argument back to the Catholic Church who believed the Church had authority over Scripture
ML said although it is true the CHurch established the canon, the gospel established the Church, and what he is arguing for is not strictly the prinacy of Scripture, but the primacy of the gospel to which the Scripture attests.
Why did ML believe scripture was written down?
The Apostles were told not to write but to proclaim. They put the Gospel into writing only at a later stage as a means to guard it from distortion.
What does it mean to say that Luther was a Biblicist?
HIs primary authority was not the canon of the Bible, it was the gospel that he found in the Bible and that was the touchstone for its interpretation.
What does Luther mean when he says the Bible must be its own interpreter?
He does not mean simply that the exegete is to compare texts. HE means also that the central message of the Bible, the gospel is the only key to biblical interpretation. But the gospel can only be understood and received by the intervention of the Spirit and therefore Scripture must be interpreted with the guidance of the Holy SPirit.
How do Roman Catholics think the Bible should be interpreted
Roman Catholics insist that Scripture can be properly interpreted only by means of the authority of tradition.
WHat does Luther say about interpretation by the Spirit?
Luther claims that Scripture must be interpreted by the Spirit, but that the spirit, being its author, does not teach us other things than the gospel, which is in Scripture.
What did ML think about Old Testament authority?
He says that the Old Testament is authoritative for Christians in some senses. HE says that the law of Moses, intended as civil law for the Jews is not binding on Christians. This includes the 10 commandments. He thinks Moses is God's law giver for the Jews, but not for us. If there are in Moses laws things we accept, we are to regard them as applicable to us not on the authority of Moses but of nature.
If there are in Moses laws things we accept how do we see them as law?
. If there are in Moses laws things we accept, we are to regard them as applicable to us not on the authority of Moses but of nature.
What is the law for ML?
The law is the will of God, it is known as the natural law, which is known by all, in the civil institutions--such as the state and the family--that express that natural law, and in the positive utterance of God's will in revelation. Law has 2 primary functions: as civil law, it restrains the wicked and provides order necessary both for social life and for the proclamation of the gospel; as theological law it bares before us the enormity of our sin.
What are the 2 types of law and why are they necessary?
Law has 2 primary functions: as civil law, it restrains the wicked and provides order necessary both for social life and for the proclamation of the gospel; as theological law it bares before us the enormity of our sin.
What is the problem humanity faces in regards to the law?
The law itself is good and sweet but after the fall humanity has become incapable of fulfilling God's will, and thus the law has become for us a word of judgement and wrath. "So the law reveals a twofold evil, one inward and the other outward."
What are the 2 fold evils caused by law?
The first, which we inflict on ourselves is sin and the corruption of nature; the second, which God inflicts is wrath, death, and being accursed.
How does the law lead us to Christ?
We hear God's no upon ourselves and upon all our efforts we are ready to listen to GOd's loving yes which is the gospel. The gospelliberates us from the law. It procliams nothing else but salvation of grace, given to man without any works or merits whatsoever. God accepts us. WE can repent of our sins without attempting to cover them up either by denying them or trusting in our own nature.
What is true of the human condition?
Our entire nature is informed by sin.
What is true of our sin?
Our sin is so deep we cannot discover it by ourselves. We can be aware of our sin against the civil order. But we still will not know what it means to be a sinner. We will not know the extent of our own evil and corruption, for our very nature, sinful as it is, will hide our sinfulness from us.
What is our sinfulness called in scripture?
It is caled flesh
What does it mean in the gospel when Paul talks about the flesh and spirit?
These are not the same as the bodily and incorporeal in us. Flesh is not just the base lusts of the body, it is the whole person craving after self-justification.
From Luther's perspective what does Erasmus think?
Erasmus had no notion of the nature of the gospel as was seen in the fact that he regarded the issue at hand as peripheral. For Erasmus the notion of free will was simply something that was required by an understanding of Christian life as one of virtue and recititude.
What does Luther think about free will
Luther believes the affirmation of free will as if we were capable of choosing to do good on our own was a denial of human sinfulness, and proof that one had heard the Word of God in neither law nor gospel.
for Luther what is justification?
Justification is not something that we achieve or merit. IT is not even something that GOd grants us on the basis of our future achievements. JUstification is, first of all, the degree of absolution that God pronounces upon us, declaring us justified in spite of our sinfulness. Justification is not God's response to our righteousness, but the loving, forgiving, declaration by God that we, in spite of our sins, are now absolved, declared to be righteous.
What name is commonly given to Luther's understanding of justification?
Justification by faith. This is proper because he thinks it comes from faith alone.
For luther faith
alone justifies without works.
For luther is faith a work?
For Luther faith is not w aowk. Faith is a work of God and not a human work.
Justifaction does not mean
we are made perfect or that we cease to sin, it just says a sinner justified is liberated from the curse of the law
Who is justification the work of?
Justification is the work of God. using this he declares us to be righteous, makes us conform to his decree.
WHat is the Christian life?
a pilgrimage from righteousness to righteousness.
Why does Luther think faith alone is good enough?
BEcuase only a nonexistent faith can fail to produce works.
What is Luther sometimes portrayed as? What is he really?
He is often depicted as a prophet of individualism and a proponent of direct and personal communication with God apart from the Church.. This is not true luther was a Churchman who preached there is no salvation outside of the CHurch.
What did his pilgriage cause him to reject about the pope?
HE rejected the pope;s authority. He also asserted that the supreme authority in the Church is the Word of God not apostolic succession.
What is the most significant feature of Luther's ecclesiology?
THe universal priesthood
What did Luther mean by universal priesthood?
He meant not only that every Christian is his own priest byt that every Christian is a priest to others. He undercut the heirarchical system the CHurch defended.
Did Luther believe in ministers and if so how?
HE siad the public preaching of the gospel was an enormous responsibility. CAn't be entrusted to just any one so God calls some in the universal priesthood to ministry.
What are sacraments?
Physical acts that God has chosen to be signs of his promise.
What are luther's qualifications for sacraments?
An act must have been instituted by Christ and must be bound with the promise of the gospel. THis leaves luther with 2: baptism and the Eucharist.
WHat 2 sacraments doe Luther believe in
BAptism and the Eucharist.
What is baptism
Baptism is the sign of justification. IT's about death and resurrection in baptism, God bestows faith upon the individual being baptized. WHoever alows himself to be baptized on the strength of his faith is not only uncertain but also an idolator who denies Christ. FOr Luther infant baptism was important because to deny baptism to infants, on the grounds they have no faith, would imply that the power of baptism and therefore the gospel depends on our ability to receive it.
WHen did Luther think people should be baptized?
FOr Luther infant baptism was important because to deny baptism to infants, on the grounds they have no faith, would imply that the power of baptism and therefore the gospel depends on our ability to receive it.
What is the longest and bitterest debate Luther was involved in?
The eucharist
What did Luther disagree with the Catholic Church on regardin the Eucharist?
Withholding the cup from the laity, transubstantiation which makes the sacrament a captive of Aristotelian metaphysics, and the doctrine that the mass is a "good work and sacrifice"
Luther's oponents believed about the presence in the Eucharist? Luther's POV?
LUther's opponents claimed presence was symbolic. Lutehr said the text of the Bible said clearly "this is my body" so it is.
2 objections people made about th Eucharist that luther didn't accept
1. Body of Christ is in heaven and canot also be on the alter. LUtehr said God is everywhere.
2. Faith is a spiritual matter; the spirit has nothing to do with the flesh; therefore, the bodily presence of Christ has nothing do do with faith. Luteher saw this was contradictory to the understanding of flesh and spirit. The spiritual comes to us in the physical.
WHat Luther rejecte din regards to the Eucharist that Catholics believed.
HE rejected transubstantiation because it made the sacrament captive of Aristotle and because it denaied the permanance of bread and wine. His own teaching was that the bread and wine became vehicles in which the body and blood of Christ were present. THis is known as consubstantiation.
What is Luther's understanding of the relationship between church and state typically referred to as?
It is called the doctrine of the 2 kingdoms
What are the 2 kingdom's God established?
1. Civil function
2. under the gospel
WHat are the purposes of the 2 kingdoms GOd established?
The civil kingdom has been established to reign in the wicked and curb the most extreme consequences for sin. IT's ruler does not have to be a Christian. Law can be discovered through natural reason.
The believers belong to the kingdom of the gospel. No linger subject to the law. In this kingdom civil rulers have no authority. Christians should not presume on the support of the state or of physical force for true religion. Rulers should not make the CHurch a mere tool of their civil government.
What 2 things made Luther different from most other youth?
1. He was prone to accute changes in mood, leading to periods of depression.
2. He was more religiously inclined than most.
WHy did he enter the monstary?
Becuase of a vow he made to St. Anne during a thunderstorm He did so because he wanted to prepare for death and make himself agreeable in the sight of God.
What type of monk was Luther?
He never showed signs of being unwilling or finding his vows burdensome, He was an exemplary monk.
What happened on Luther's pilgrimage to Rome?
His confidence was shattered when he saw the relics and other means of attaining merit had fallen. This is the first indication of doubt.
Who was his superior at Whittenberg?
Johann von Staupitz
What did Johann von Staupitz do?
HE listened to luther's fears without feeling compelled to condemn him. HE introduced Luther to mystics when Luther had misgivings about confession. HE decided Luther would study, become a doctor and be given pastoral responsibilities. Posisbly becuase they thought if Lutehr was compelled to focus his attention on doubts and needs of others his own doubts would recede into the background.
What was the first thing Luther became skeptical of?
Confession. The problem stemmed from discovering it was impossible to confess all of his sins. The German mystics showed him forgiveness relied not on forgiveness of individual sins but simply on completely entrusting oneself to God.
What was the biggest problem for Luther's beliefs?
The biggest problem was one of sin and grace and justice and love. How could God most holy be appeased by a man like Luther unrighteous and unholy sinner.
What was the beginning of Lutheran theology?
The realization that in some mysterious way, justice and love are interconnected.
What did Luther do in regards to the theses?
HE wrote 97 theses to be defended in one of the exercises usually required of completion of a bachelor's degree but he also had htem printed and used them to defend himself from any opponent.
Did Luther intend to cause the consequences in connection with the 97 theses?
No he considered himself a Catholic at this point he just wanted to draw attention to his discoveries. HE preached against practice of proper contributions and such. Which actually hurt him as well because the contributions went to pay for the school he worked for.
What was the proclamation of Leo X?
His proclamation granted Albert of Branden burg the right to sell new indulgences. THe purpose of this sale was to complete basilica of St. Peter. Luther's parishioners went across the border to purchase the merchandise and came back and reported to Luther the outlsndish claims being made by the Vendors. Then Luther composed his famous 95 theses.
What is the official name of Luther's 95 theses?
Disputation on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences.
What did Luther attack in his 95 theses?
Not the pope but rahter against preachers of indulgences. The claims of these preachers were detrimental to the pope for they make the laity question him. Luther asks why the pope who has great wealth not build the basilica? Why does he make the poor believers pay?
Who did he have a debate with? Did he want to be thrown out of the Church? What actions if any did he take to ensure he would not be removed from the Church?
HE had a debate with Leonard Baier.
He did not want to be excommunicated.
He sent Explanations to the pope with an apology but they condemned him anyway.
What did Luther's address to the german nobility state?
THat the pope had no authority over secular rulers and over scripture. He claimed secular power not the pope must call a council for Church reformation.