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88 Cards in this Set

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Antibacterial/ antimicrobial Fibers
protect textiles from mildew and microbial growth, odor and fiber damage
Antistatic Fibers
incorporates anti-static compound, which absorbs moisture and conducts electricity
Bicompotent- bigeneric fiber
If the 2 components in the bicomponent fiber represent 2 different generic classes
Bicompotent fiber
consists of 2 polymers that are chemically or physically different, or both. Extruded from same spinneret & contained in same filament
Binder Staple
semidull, crimped fiber w/ low melting point- bonds easily to other fibers when heated
Bright Fibers
fiber in original luster without delusterant
Cross-dyeable/ dye-affinity fibers
incorporated dye-accepting chemicals into the molecular structure
Deluster
putting white pigment (titanium dioxide) in the spinning solution before extrusion for dullness
Extrusion
process of forcing dope or spinning solution through spinneret
Fiber additives
compounds added to manufactured fiber dope to improve appearance or performance
Fiber Modification
changes in the parent manufactured fiber to improve performance in end use.
Fiber spinning
Process of producing a manufactured fiber from a solution
Filament Fiber
spun from spinnerets with 350 holes or less
Filament Tow
-Intermediate stage
- staple man. fibers
-first produced in large bundles in filament length and crimped
-then cut into staple length
Filament Yarn
Yarn made from filament fibers; smooth or bulky
Flame-resistant fibers
better protection than flame- retardant finishes on fabric surfaces
Generic Name
family of man. or synt. fibers that have similar chemical composition
High-Tenacity Fibers
fibers modified in spinning process to increase fiber strength
Low- elongation
used in blends with weaker fibers to increase strength and abrasion resistance
Fiber modifications
1) Change size & shape of spinneret
2) change fiber molecular structure and crystallinity-increase durability
3) add compounds to dope to enhance performance
4)Alter spinning process
5) Combine 2 polymers in a single fiber or yarn
Low-pilling fibers
engineered to have lower flex life - decreases pill formation
Manufactured fibers
-from chemical compounds
-72% of US textiles
-continuous production
-uniform quality
-can be manipulated
* cost and quantity efficiency
Microdenier
a fiber less than 1.0 denier per filament
Mixed-denier filament bundling
combines fibers of several denier sizes
Parent fiber
the simplest form of a fiber that has not been modified in any way
Shin-gosen
-ultrafine fiber (often polyester)
- modified cross sections
-occaisional irregularities
- produced in Japan
Solution dyeing/ mass pigmentation
addition of color to solutions before extrusion
-permanant
-even color, doesn't fade
-color cannot be changed
- for fibers difficult to dye
-COLORFASTNESS
Spinneret
thimblelike nozzle where solution is extruded to form a fiber
Spinning solution or dope
chemical solution extruded as a fiber
Sunlight resistance
finish applied to minimize degradative effects of sunlight
Thick-and-thin fibers
vary in diameter throughout their length
Trade name
used to identify a company's products
Trilobal Shape
3 sided fiber cross sectional shape designed to imitate silk
Ultrafine fiber
fiber less than 0.3 denier per filament
Whiteners or brighteners
optical bleach that reflects bluelight from the fabric & masks yellowing and dirt
Multicellular Fibers
imitate air cells inanimal hair & provides insulation and bouyancy in water
Generic Group
fibers with similar chemical composition
Acetate
-2nd man. fiber, 1st THERMOPL
-line garments, dry spinning
-good drape, soft, smooth
-weaker when wet
- cheap
-thermoplastic, LUSTER
-poor absorbancy
- heat wrinkles
-soluble in acetone
Acetone Test
Solubility test used to identify acetate
Azlon
-formed from regenerated proteins
- Soysilk- waste from tofu production
Bamboo
-from China
-soft hand
-naturally antibacterial
Fume or Pollution Fading
-color- retention problem
-Colors altered when exposed to gasses, fumes and other atmospheric pollutants
Heat-sensitive fiber
The ability to soften, melt, or shrink when subjected to heat
High- Wet- Modulus rayon/ HWM/ High performance
- like cotton
- stronger, more dimensional stability
- machine washable
-"polynosic"
Lyocell
-Eucalyptus tree
-Solvent spun
- like cotton but cheaper
-softer and stronger
-activewear - no LUSTER!
-good wrinkle recovery
-TENCEL
Manufactured regenerated fiber
produced in fiber form from naturally occuring polymers
Rayon
-1st manufactured fiber
-wet spinning, dry clean
-low strength, poor stability
-viscose has striations
-lobed, popcorn shape
- weaker when wet
-hydrophillic/ good absorban.
- good dyeability
-good wrinkle resistance
Striations
-lengthwise lines caused by loss of solvent during coagulation
- interior of fiber shrinks causing lines
Thermoplastic Fiber
Fibers that melt or glaze at low temperatures
Triacetate
- No longer produced in US- solvent banned by EPA
-cellulose acetate forms substance
- not less than 92%
Wet Spinning
- form a soluble derivative
-extrude it
- solidify it in a chemical bath becomes 100% cellulose solid
- changes fiber's cross section *hard to control
Regenerated Cellulosic fibers
produced from cotton linters and wood chips
Cellulosic
Acetate
Rayon
Lyocell
Triacetate
Protein
Azions
Fibrilation
-Lyocell
- Tendancy to pill
Generic name for solvent spun rayon
Lyocell
Solvent Spinning
1) dissolve wood pulp in hot amine oxide
2)gel spin
3)recover all amine oxide for reuse
Acetate makes
- taffettas and satins
-dyed with disperse dyes
-has striation lines
Acetate Most used for
-apparel lining
-not good for children
-draperies & upholstery
-cigarrette filters
Expensiveness
Lyocell
Rayon
Acetate - CHEAPEST
Uses of Lyocell
Activewear
Underwear
* good in hot weather & for skin
definition of man. fiber
a fiber derived by a process of manufacture from a substance that at any point in the process is not a fiber
Kinds of Regenerated Fibers
Cellulosic/ derivative cell.
Protein
Mineral
Kinds of Synthetic Fibers
Cellulosic
Protein
Synthetic
Rubber
Mineral
Synthetic Fibers
Fibers converted from synthesized materials such as plastic chips
Generic Names
-based on fiber industry
-Approved by Fed. Trade Commission
-Acetate, Acrylic, Nylon, etc
Trade Names
- Companie's names for fibers
- for generic fibers

ex: SUPPLEX nylon
Sheath
Core fiber
- one polymer forms a core and the other surrounds it as a sheath
3 Steps of spinning
Spinning Solution
Extrusion
Solidifying
Spinning
process of converting materials into fibers
Spinning solution
raw materials made into thick solution
Solidifying
solidifying of spinneret fiber by coagulation (cooling)
3 most common spinning methods
wet
dry
melt
Velvet
-Rayon
-cheaper
-filament yarns
-synthetic
Velveteen
-Cotton
-spun yarns
-natural
Melt Spinning
-melt chips
-extrude
- solidify solution by cooling it
-least expensive
-easy to manipulate shape and size from spinneret
Dry spinning
- dissolve in solvent
- extrude
- solidify by drying in warm air
-used for easily soluble solvent
Polymer properties
molecular structure, molecular arrangement, additives
Physical structure
shape, size, color, luster
mechanical crimping improves
- cover and loft- bulky knits
- stretch and recovery-sptsw
- coesiveness
Types of Spinneret shapes
round
triangle
hollow
thick-and-thin
flat
Most common spinneret
Round
Triangular spinneret
-improves luster
- silky
- lobes hide dirt
Coarse Fibers
carpets, tires
Fine and Average size
apparel and home furnishings
Microdenier fibers are
-expensive
-soft, flexible materials
Additives
introduced before extrusion to improve fiber performance
Types of Additives
delustering
solution dyeing
whiteners
cross dyeable
sunlight resistance
flame resistance