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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
•Richly patterned fabric with embroidered effect
•Long “floats” of thread are visible on fabric back
•Effect is created on loom
•Uses chemicals that destroy fibers and create a pattern on fabric
Burn-Out Printing
•One of the most widely used fibers for home furnishings. Characteristics vary based on variety, growing conditions, and processing. Is versatile, abrasion resistant, light resistant, cleans easily, wrinkles easily (blending with polyester helps), can shrink, and is susceptible to mildew. Mercerization increases strength, bulk, and luster of ...
•A unicellular, natural fiber that grows in the seed pod of the cotton plant. Fibers are typically ½ inch to 2 inches long. The longest staple fibers, longer than 1 ½ inch, including the Pima and Egyptian varieties, produce the highest quality fabrics.
cutting for approval
•Fabrics with small, simple geometric designs (woven into cloth)
Dobby Weave
Soluble chemicals that add color to textiles
o Majority of fabrics dyed with synthetic dyes
o Dyeability of fabric is dependent upon fiber
o different chemicals used to color different fibers
o natural fibers accept dyes differently than synthetic fibers
•Yarns that run horizontally
Filling Yarn
•Fabrics with intricate designs
•Examples: Tapestries and brocades
Jacquard Weave
•act of ¬interloping yarn to create fabric
•Open-work fabric produced by twisting and knotting together threads to form a pattern
•Common styles: Battenburg, chantilly, Nottingham
Lace Weave
•One of the world’s oldest textile fibers. Obtained from stem of flax plant. Relatively expensive. Is strong, abrasion resistant, light resistant, has a nice luster, stiff and does not drape well, wrinkles easily, has poor resiliency, expands, and contracts w/ humidity. Blending w/ other fibers helps.
•A bast fiber from the flax plant.
• Double Cloth/Packet Weaves:
o Fabric woven in 2 layers simultaneously on same loom
o layers intersect and switch from face to back to create pattern
o layers cannot be separated w/o damaging fabric
o fabric is “stuffed” producing a quilted look
Matelasse Weave
•derived from natural materials in nature
•example: rayon and acetate

A general term for fibers that are either chemically processed from natural materials or are developed as new chemical compounds.
Natural Man-Made Fibers
• provide decorative surface effects on fabric
• common used:
o boucle: produces a looped effect
o chenille: produces a “fuzzy” surface
o guimp/gimp: a yarn with a completely covered core
Novelty Yarns
•First commercially available synthetic fiber. Can be blended with other fibers to enhance its durability. Is inherently lustrous and has a smooth hand, is very strong, has excellent abrasion resistance, is resistant to rotting and mildew, is a definitive synthetic fiber for carpet, tends to pill, collects static electricity, is vulnerable to stains but easily cleaned, does not retain its shape when subjected to moisture, should never be used for window treatments, and is used for wall coverings or other vertical uses.
•A man-made synthetic fiber. It is strong and durable, exhibits high static and pilling, and has low moisture regain.
• Dyeing fabric after it has been constructed
• Most common method of dyeing solid colored fabrics
• is very economical
• Fabric dyed in piece, or bolt, form, usually in a solid color, after it has been constructed.
Piece Dyeing
• Fabric construction incorporates looped yarns on surface of fabric
• so densely packed it becomes a raised surface
• Cut: loops are cut
• Uncut: loops are not cut
• examples: velvet, velveteen, mohair, corduroy, and terrycloth
Pile Weave
• The tendency of a fabric, usually synthetic, to form fuzzy balls in reaction to abrasion. Considered a defect when excessive.
• One of the 3 basic weaves. Simplest weave. Face and back of fabric generally the same. Most commonly used weave. Examples: cotton and taffeta. Basket weave (over and under). Filling yarn crosses over a warp yarn and then under the next warp yarn. Each row alternates the “over” and “under” warp yarns. Many variations are possible as a result, both of the character of yarns used and of variations within the weave. Among the fabrics woven in a plain weave are: gingham, calico, muslin, tapestry.
Plain Weave
•two or more single yarns twisted together
•each strand of single yarn is referred to as a ply
o most common is two-ply yarn
•stronger than single yarns and of higher quality
Ply Yarns
• Color applied to specific areas of fabric to create patterns and motifs
• Textile Printing
o Application of dyes/pigments to produce fabric designs on fabric
o Printing allows color to be applied to specific areas of the fabric
o Creates patterns/motifs that are not part of manufactured fabric

• Screen Printing
o Uses prepared screens to apply color to specific areas
o Dye is pressed through a fine screen to apply design
o Each color in design requires a separate screen
o Traditional screen printing done by hand
o Very labor intensive

• Rotary Screen Printing:
o Most widely used and fastest method of screen printing
o Efficient for printing large quantities of fabric
o Allows for large repeat sizes
o Produces prints with extremely accurate registration

• Burn-Out Printing:
o Uses chemicals that destroy fibers and create a pattern on fabric
• Three layers of fabric stitched together
• face fabric, filling/batting and backing fabric sandwiched together
• used for bed coverings, pillow covers, and upholstery

• Outline ...
o stitching follows outline of motifs on printed fabric
• First manufactured fiber. Processed from wood pulp. Initially, fibers were weak and difficult to clean. Advanced technology has improved performance of rayon. Majority produced is viscose. Lustrous, drapes beautifully, fibers have low resistance to abrasion, fibers deteriorate w/ prolonged exposure to light, fibers are weak and tend to stretch, fibers perform better when blended with other fibers, and must be dry cleaned.
• A man-made fiber processed from cellulose that is easily dyed and lustrous. Used alone or as a blend, the yarn is used in a variety of fabrics with a soft hand and that drape well. Viscose has been processed into liquid and then extruded into filament and is ...’s most popular form.
• One of the 3 basic weaves, which produces a smooth surface by floating warp yarns over multiple picks (warped-face), or floating filling yarns over multiple ends (filling-faced sateen). The points of intersection of warp and filling are as widely spaced as possible. Characterized by weave pattern that allows warp and filling yarns to “float” over 4 or more yarns and then under one yarn. Examples: rayon, polyester, and cultivated silk.
Satin Weave
• Uses prepared screens to apply color to specific areas
• Dye is pressed through a fine screen to apply design
• Each color in design requires a separate screen
• Traditional screen printing done by hand
• Very labor intensive
Screen Printing
• Narrow edge on fabric that runs parallel to warp
• Keeps fabric from unraveling
• The long, finished edges of a bolt of fabric that run parallel to the warp. The filling yarns are caught by these end yarns, and they usually are a stronger yarn than the rest of the warp.
• The only natural filament fiber. Spun by silkworms that form cocoons. Production is very labor-intensive. Cultivated silk is smooth and lustrous. Silk noil has a fine but very nubby texture. Wild or tussah silk is dull and color is light to dark brown. Doupioni silk has irregularities or “slubs”. Silk has beautiful sheen, rich luster and texture. It is one of the strongest natural fibers. It is easily damaged by light exposure. Silk fibers degrade over time. It is expensive.
• Color added to “dope” solution when fiber is in liquid state
• only manufactured fibers can be solution dyed
• Solution dyed fibers have excellent colorfastness
• solution dyeing is expensive
• Synthetic fiber that has been dyed while still in the same solution state before being extruded into filaments.
Solution Dyeing
• process if making manufactured fiber
• The mechanical process of making yarn from staple fiber.
•short fibers
•all natural fibers (except silk)
Staple Fibers
• created from synthetic materials
• example: nylon and polyester

Synthetic fibers are fibers derived from petrochemicals. They tend to be non-allergenic, do not promote mildew growth, do not appeal to bugs, have excellent abrasion resistance and resiliency, resist stains, and are dimensionally stable. They are also more difficult to dye, tend to collect static electricity, have an affinity for grease and oil, and are susceptible to pilling. Examples include: polyester, nylon, and acrylic.
Synthetic Man-Made Fibers
• One of the 3 basic weaves in which the filling yarns pass over one or more and under one or more warp yarns in offset progression to create the appearance of diagonal lines. Characterized by prominent diagonal lines. Example: denim. Some variations of the weave are herringbone and bird’s eye.
Twill Weave
• Films are non-fibrous, synthetic materials formed into thin layers of fabric. Waterproof and easy to clean. Used for shower curtains. Vinyl is considered a film. Vinyl is a nonwoven water-repellant film used alone or laminated to a backing fabric. It is the most popular “fabric” for wall coverings. It is soil-resistant and easy to clean.
• Yarns that run lengthwise
Warp Yarn
• Obtained from fleece of sheep or lamb. Specialty wool fibers come from camels and goats. Fiber length, color, and fineness vary considerably, based on animal breed. Wool is wrinkle resistant, has good resiliency, retains its shape, abrasion resistant, soil resistant, and can be scratchy. Wool shrinks, however special finishes now prevent shrinkage.
• Fiber derived from the fleece of sheep. The fiber is resilient and may be blended with natural or man-made fibers.
• Adds color at yarn stage
• Individual strands within fabric are separately colored
• stripes, plaids, and most jacquard fabrics are yarn dyed
• Fabric that is made from yarn that is dyed before the fabric is constructed.
Yarn Dyeing
• after yarns are spun, they are twisted together
o twisting increases strength and abrasion resistance
• degree of twist can vary from low to high twist
Yarn Twist