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62 Cards in this Set

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Filament Fibers
-Infinite Lengths
-cut to resemble staple
-
Only natural Filament Fiber
Silk
Synthetic
made from chemicals
ex: polyester
nylon
olefin
man made
made from natural waste
ex: rayon
acetate
staple fibers
twisted together
the shorter the fibers
the more twist it needs to become a yarn
long fibers
harder to separate
filament require less twist, grouped together
yarn classification
simple and complex
simple yarns
uniform in shape and size throughout the length
complex yarns
characterized by variation in twist, bulk, or texture
3 types of simple yarn
single, ply, cable
yarn
-continuous strand of fibers
-can be made of filament, staple, or both
durability
depends on fiber and amount of twist
names of material
fiber NOT fabric
Filling
crosswise weave (horizontal)
warp
vertical weave
Cable yarns
more than one ply twisted together
ply
stronger than single
filament fibers have
more luster
Filament yarn categories
multi-filament
mono-filament
textured
complex yarns
spiral
knot
boucle
slub
Mono-Filament
curl w/ fingernails & does not separate
Multi-Filament
curl w/ fingernails & separates into many tiny hairs
* SHINER
Textured Yarn
crimped and stretchy
-thermoplastic yarn
smooth multi filament yarn:
more luster
less pilling
less stretch
Textured multi filament yarn:
greater bulk
elasticity
greater comfort
absorbency
Air Jet Texturing Method
produce yarn with bulk and little or no stretch
Knit de Knit Texturing Method
produces stretch and retains kink due to heat set
Stuffer Box Texturing Method
yarns have lots of bulk and some stretch
manufactured fibers
spinnerette
Complex Yarns
uneven diameters due to different textile and design effects-texture, bulk, stretch properties added
Ratine
curly knotted yarn made with one heavy and fine yarn
boucle suiting
visible loops on surface
examples of complex yarns:
ratine
boucle
knot spot
marquisette
snarl
slub
flock or flake
metallic yarn made of
flat filament
Chemical spinning for
both filament and staple
chemical spinning
viscose solution through spinneret in chem. solution for hardening
dry spinning
warm air hardens solution
Melt Spinning
Pellets soften and go through spinneret and cool to harden
Mechanical Spinning for
for short fibers natural and manufactured staple
Mechanical Spinning
sorting and blending
forms fiber web
carding
combing
Mechanically spun fibers
cotton, wool, flax
Carding
parallel alignment of fiber lap
Combing
remove shorter fibers from fiber lap
-expensive
-not done to all
-makes fiber finer
Combed cotton
combed and carded
worsted wool
combed and carded
woolens
carded only
Throwing
silk yarns made from filaments unwound directly from cocoon and grouped
Worsted yarn
shinier and smoother
Open-end spinning
fibers drawn out of high speed rotor
Yarn #
unit of weight per length of yarn, distinguishes yarn sizes
Indirect method
fixed weights of yarn
-1 lb.
- finer the yarn, larger the #
indirect method 1 hank =
840 yds. yarn
IDM yarn # =
# of hanks in a pound
IDM Woolen Yarn
1600yds. /hank
IDM Worsted
560 yds./ hank
Flax
300yds./hank
Direct Method
Fixed length
- higher #, thicker yarn
- 9,000 meters of filament
-weight in grams
If 840 yds. is 1 lb.
then yarn # is 1
If 9,000 m weighs 2g
then yarn size is 2 denier
Indirect method measures
yarn number
Direct method measures
yarn size