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379 Cards in this Set

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natural cellulosic fibers
cotton, flax, ramie, hemp, jute, pina
seed fiber
cotton
bast fiber
flax, ramie, hemp, jute
leaf fiber
pina
the most important apparel fiber
cotton
properties of cellulosic fibers
good absorbency, good conductor of heat, ability to withstand high temp, low resiliency, good conductors of electricity, heavy fibers, harmed by mineral acids, min damage by organic acids, flammable
characteristics of cotton
-comfort
-easy care
-durability
-good abrasion resistance
-poor resiliency
-moderate elastic recovery
fiber size of cotton
staple
3 groups of cotton
-upland cottons
-long-staple cottons
-short-staple cottons
3 types of long-staple cotton
-Egyptian
-Sea Island
-Pima
cotton fiber is made up of...
-cuticle
-primary wall
-secondary wall
-lumen
wax like film covering the primary wall
cuticle
central canal through which nourishment travels during fiber development
lumen
ribbon like twists that characterize cotton
convultions
cotton is ____% cellulose
94%
a type of cotton that is altered using chemical treatments or finishes
mercerized cotton
mercerized cotton increases _______ and improves the _________ of cotton yarns and fabrics
absorbency; dyeability
cotton appearance
matte, low luster, soft hand
cotton is 30% ______ when wet
stronger
cotton produced following state fiber certification standards on land where organic farming practices have been used for at least 3 years
organic cotton
cotton produced on land where organic farming is practiced, but the 3 year min. has not been met
transition cotton
describes cotton fabric that has been washed with mild natural based soap but has not been bleached or treated with other chemicals
green cotton
come from the stem of the plant, near the outer edge
bast fibers
one of the oldest textile fibers
flax
a fabric made from flax
linen
characteristics of flax
-body
-strength
-low pilling and linting
-pleasant hand
-thick and thin texture
flax can be identified by its ______.
nodes
joints that contribute to flexibility
nodes
short flax fibers
tow
long flax fibers
line (better quality)
flax appearance
high natural luster
other characteristics of flax
poor elasticity, stiff, nodes contribute to flexibility but also weakest part of fiber, good abrasion resistance, high moisture regain, good conductor of electricity, good conductor of heat, resistant to alkalis, organic solvents, and high temps, can be bleached
a white, long, fine fiber with a silk like luster; one of the strongest natural fibers; strength increases when wet
ramie
resembles flax, coarser and stiffer than flax, resistance to rotting; environmentally friendly
hemp
one of the cheapest textile fibers; poor elasticity and elongation; produces sugar, coffee bags, rope, etc.
jute
obtained from the leaves of the pineapple; soft, lustrous, and white
Pina
fibers of animal origin
natural protein fibers
protein fibers
wool, silk
protein of wool
keratin
protein of silk
fibroin
natural protein fibers absorb ______ without feeling _______; they are ________
moisture; wet; hygroscopic
fibers have the ability to be shaped by heat and moisture; good moisture absorption without feeling wet; excellent heat retention; water repellency; feltablity; flame retardent
wool
one of the earliest fiber to be spun into yarns and woven into cloth
wool
one of the most widely used textile fibers before the Industrial Revolution
wool
sheep whose fleece contains no kemp fiber; produce most valuable wool
merino
newly removed wool
raw or grease wool
removing impurities in wool
clean or scoured wool
in wool, grease is purified to ______
lanolin
wool from animals less than 7 months old
lamb's wool
scraps of new woven or felted fabrics that are garnetted back to the fibrous state and reused
recycled wool
recycled wool is not as...
resilient, strong, and durable as new wool
refers to a compact yarn and implies longer fibers and greater uniformity of fiber length after it undergoes a combing process
worsted
describes a softer and more loosely twisted yarn and implies shorter, less uniform in length, and less parallel fibers
woolen
a microscopic honey comb-like core containing air spaces that increase the insulating power of the fiber
medulla
the main part of the fiber (wool)
cortex
the wool cuticle contains _____
scales
combines agitation, friction, and pressure with heat and moisture to shrink the fabric
felting
wool appearance
loft, body, matte appearance
characteristics of wool
durable, abrasion resistance, hygroscopic, poor conductor of heat, very resilient, maintains its shape well, excellent elastic recovery, does not soil readily, weaker when wet, burns slowly and self extinguishes, damaged by bleach, environmentally friendly
hair fiber of the Angora goat
Mohair
newly removed wool
raw or grease wool
removing impurities in wool
clean or scoured wool
in wool, grease is purified to ______
lanolin
wool from animals less than 7 months old
lamb's wool
scraps of new woven or felted fabrics that are garnetted back to the fibrous state and reused
recycled wool
recycled wool is not as...
resilient, strong, and durable as new wool
refers to a compact yarn and implies longer fibers and greater uniformity of fiber length after it undergoes a combing process
worsted
describes a softer and more loosely twisted yarn and implies shorter, less uniform in length, and less parallel fibers
woolen
a microscopic honey comb-like core containing air spaces that increase the insulating power of the fiber
medulla
the main part of the fiber (wool)
cortex
the wool cuticle contains _____
scales
combines agitation, friction, and pressure with heat and moisture to shrink the fabric
felting
wool appearance
loft, body, matte appearance
characteristics of wool
durable, abrasion resistance, hygroscopic, poor conductor of heat, very resilient, maintains its shape well, excellent elastic recovery, does not soil readily, weaker when wet, burns slowly and self extinguishes, damaged by bleach, environmentally friendly
hair fiber of the Angora goat; fibers are slightly coarse; very sislient
Mohair
hair of the Angora rabbit
Angora
obtained from the two-humped Bactrian camel
camel's hair
produced by a small goat
cashmere
rare wild animals of the South American camel
vicuna and guanaco
universally accepted as a luxury fiber
silk
water-soluble protective gum of silk
sericin
silk-in-the-gum
raw silk
silk where the production is not controlled
wild silk
the most common type of wild silk
Tussah
silk that results when two silkworms spin their cocoons together; yarn is irregular in diameter with a thick and thin appearance
duppioni
describes the weight of silk
momme
only natural filament fiber
silk
silk appearance
can be dyed and printed in brilliant colors; luster is soft; wild silk has a duller luster and less regular surfaces with the presence of sericin
silk treated with metallic salts
weighting
characteristics of silk
moderate abrasion resistance; one of the strongest natural fibers; weaker when wet; good absorbency; poor conductor of heat; moderate resistance to wrinkling; fibers do not shrink; resistant to dilute mineral acids and organic acids
characteristics of wild silk
not as durable, wrinkles more easily
any fiber derived by a process of manufacture from a substance that at any point in the process is not a fiber
manufactured fiber
two types of manufactured fibers
-regenerated
-synthetic
cellulosic manufactured fibers
acetate; rayon; lyocell
noncellulosic and synthetic manufactured fibers
acrylic; aramid; lastol; modacrylic; nylon; olefin; polyester; rubber; spandex; vinyon; vinol
mineral manufactured fibers
glass; metallic
raw materials of manufactured fibers are made into thick solutions called spinning solutions or ______
dope
the addition of colored pigments or dyes to the spinning solution; fiber is colored when it emerges from the spinneret
solution dyeing or mass pigmentation
added to the spinning solution to make fibers look whiter and resist yellowing
whiteners and brighteners
made by incorporating dye-accepting chemicals into the molecular structure
cross-dyeable fibers
a fiber consisting of two polymers that are chemically different, physically different, or both
bicomponent fiber
the first regenerated cellulosic fiber
rayon
high performance rayon
High-wet modulus rayon or HWM rayon
regular rayon produced in the US
viscose rayon
viscose rayon is characterized by its _______; lengthwise lines
striations
characteristics of rayon
high absorbent; soft; comfortable; easy to dye; versatile; unique soft drape; weaker when wet; low elastic recovery; low resiliency; limited washability; harmed by acids; resistant to dilute alkalies; not affected by organic solvents; not recycled
the development of this fiber was due to rayon's negative environmental impact
lyocell
lyocell is ____% cellulose
100%
properties of lycell
more like those of cotton; soft, flowing drape; good strength, absorbency, and opacity; comfort, smooth; moderate resiliency; sensitive to acids and resistant to alkalies and most organic solvents; not recycled
strongest of the cellulosic fibers
lyocell
first thermoplastic or heat sensitive fiber
acetate
and acetate that contains no hydroxyl groups
triacetate
a problem with acetate is _______ _________
fume fading
a condition in which certain disperse eyes changed color when exposed to atmospheric fumes
fume or pollution fading
acetate is available as ______ or ______
staple; filament
properties of acetate
low cost; good draping;"beauty fiber"; maintains a good white color; weak fiiber; loses some strength when wet; extremely soft; thermal retention is poor; not very resislient and wrinkle; should be dry cleaned; resistant to weak acids and to alkalis; can be bleached; thermoplastic and heat sensitive
______ and ______ are the two oldest manufactured fibers
rayon; acetate
refers to fibers that soften or melt with heat
heat sensitivity
those fibers that scorch or decompose
heat resistant
the melting and flattening of yarns and fibers exposed to excess heat; used in finishing to produce deliberate texture and surface effects
glazing
aligns the molecules in a more parallel arrangement and brings them closer together so they are more crystalline and oriented
drawing
process that uses heat to stabilize yarns or fabrics made of heat sensitive fibers
heat setting
the first synthetic fiber and the first fiber produced in the United States
nylon
properties of nylon
strong, more resistant to abrasion, excellent elasticity, could be heat-set, static build up, poor hand. poor comfort, low resistance to sunlight, light weight; low absorbency; excellent resistance to alkali and chlorine bleaches but is damged by strong acids
nylon is available in _________, _______, _______, and _________
multifilament, monofilament, staple, and tow
regular nylon has a _______ cross section and is perfectly _______
round; uniform
nylon carpets have a cross section of _______with _______ to give good _______ - _______ characteristics
squares; voids; soil-hiding
one of the lightest fibers on the market
nylon
one of the most widely used fibers in the United States
nylon
first polyester fiber
Terylene
properties of polyster
outstanding wet and dry resiliency; excellent dimensional stability; workhorse fiber of the industry; fibers are melt spun; blends well; low absorbency; little comfort; more prone to static problems; high recovery rate; do not shrink and resist wrinkling; resistant to both acids and alkalis; can be bleached; recycled
most widely used manufactured and synthetic fiber
polyester
properties of Olefin
good for furnishings; strong and resistant to abrasion; inexpensive; chemically inert; thermoplastic; static resistant
two processes used to create olefin
-high pressure system
-low pressure system
olefins are produced as ________, ________, _______, ________, and _________ or ________ film yarns with variable tendencies
multifilament; monofilament; staple fiber; tow; slit; fibrillated
two types of olefin
-polyethylene
-polypropylene
more properties of Olefin
medium luster; smooth texture; waxy hand; good abrasion resistance; durable and strong; nonabsorbant; excellent wicking abilities; good heat retention; reistance to acids, alkalis, insects, and microorganisms; low melting point
an elastic olefin, is a generic subclass fiber with superior stretch and recovery properties compared to other olefin fibers
lastol
properties of acrylic
soft; warm; lightweight; resilient; "warm without weight"; attractive with soft hand; imitate woold fabrics; not as durable as nylon, polyester, or olefin; surface is less regular; moderately comfortable; resists wrinkling; cannot be heat set; good resistance to most chemicals
modified acrylics first produced in United States in 1949
modacrylic fibers
the first inherently flame retardant synthetic
modacrylic
modacrylic's cross sectoin
dog bone shaped
properties of modacrylic
furlike fabrics; wigs; less durable than acrylics; elastic recovery is better than acrylics; poor conductors of heat; soft; warm; and resilient; tendency to pill; low absorbency; resistant to acids, weak alkalis, and most organic solvents; less of an impact on environment than acrylic
first manufactured elastic fiber
Lycra (Spandex)
properties of Spandex
superior to rubber in strength and durability; monofilament or multifilament; seldom used alone in fabrics; dyeability; good strength; more resistant to degredation than ruber; resistant to body oils, perspiration, lotions, and cosmetics; uncomfortable; resistant to dilute acids, alkalis, bleaches, and dry-cleaning solvents; thermoplastic; superior aging resistance
an elastic cross-liked copolymer olefin with low but significant crystllinity, composed of at least 95% by weight of ethylene
lastol
an aromatic polyamide fiber
aramid
properties of aramid
exceptional heat and flame resistancel good strength and fire resistance; can be wet or dry spun; dog bone shape cross section; high tenacity and high resistance to stretch and high temps; maintains its shape and form at high temps; resistant to most chemicals; oleophilic and prone to static build up; lightweight and fatigue; damage resistant
an incombustible textile fiber; it does not burn
glass
properties of glass
draperies for public buildings; severe skin irritation; brittle; exhibit poor flex abrasion resistance; break when bent; very heavy; high specific gravity (2.69); nonabsorbent and resistant to sunlight; flameproof
properties of metallic fibers
add a decorative touch; ironing is a problem; help reduce static; heavy; cannot bend without permanent crease
two processes to produce metallic fibers
laminating process
metalizing process
a continuous strand of textile fibers, filaments, or materials in a form suitable for knitting, weaving, or otherwise interwining to form a textile fabric
yarn
made from manufactured fibers, except for the tiny percentage that is filament silk
filament yarns
fibers that are uniform as they come from the spinneret
smooth filament yarns
yarns primarily used for industrial uses; made of a single coarse-filament fiber
monofilament yarns
inexpensive yarns produced from extruded polymer films
tape yarns
a yarn that has been processed to have greater covering power or apparent volume than that of a conventional yarn of equal linear density
bulk yarns
yarns that include any continuous filmanet yarn whose smooth, straight fibers have been displaced from their closely packed, parallel position by the introduction of some form of crimp, curl, loop, or coil
bulk continuous filament yarns (BCF)
processes to create texture to yarns
-false twist
-draw texturing
-stuffer box
-air jet
-knit-deknit
yarns formed from inherently bulky manufactured fiber that are hollow along part or all of their length or from fibers that cannot be closely packed because of their cross sectional shape, fiber alignment, stiffness, resilience, or natural crimp
bulky yarns
thermoplastic filament spun yarns with a high degree of potential elastic stretch, rapid recovery, and a high degree of yarn curl
stretch yarns
filament or spun yarns with notably greater apparent volume than a conventional yarn of similar filament count and linear density
textured yarns
continuous strands of staple fibers held together in some way
spun yarns
loosens, cleans, and blends the fibers
opening
partially aligns the fibers and forms them into a thin web that is brought together as a soft, very weak rope of fibers called carded sliver
carding
increases the parallelism of the fibers and combines several carded or combed slivers into one drawn sliver
drawing
produces a yarn that is superior to a carded yarn in smoothness, fineness, evenness, and strength; aligns fibers in a parallel arrangment
combing
reduces the drawn sliver, increases the parallel alignment of the fibers, and inserts a small amount of twist in the strand
roving
spinning that consists of a series of operations designed to clean and make parallel staple fibers, draw them out into a fine strand, and twist them to keep them together and give them strength
ring spinning
adds a yarn twist
spinning
eliminates the formation of the roving
open-end roving spinning
yarns that are essentially free from stretch
high-bulk yarns
an intimate mixture of fibers of different generic type, composition, length, diameter, or color spun together into one yarn
blend
yarns of different generic types within a fabric
mixture
yarn composed of short-staple fibers that are twisted or otherwise bonded together, resulting in a fuzzy yarn with protruding fiber ends
spun yarn
yarn composed of long fibers grouped together or slightly twisted together
filament yarn
uniformly bulky yarns
textured-bulk filament yarns
the spiral arrangement of the fibers around the yarn's axis
twist
this twist produces lofty spun yarns
napping twist
twist used most commonly for yarns made of staple fibers
average twist
twist that have a harsher hand and more turns per inch
hard or voile twist
yarns that have the highest number of turns per inch inserted in the yarn
crepe yarns
yarns size or fineness
yarn number
describes yarn size using filament fibers
denier
yarn has one strand and is in its simplest form
single yarn
yarn made by a second twisting operation that combines two or more singles
ply yarn
yarn made my a third twisting operation
cord
yarn intended for stitching materials together using machine or hand processes
sewing thread
yarns that deliberately have unlike parts and that are irregular at intervals
fancy yarns
yarns that produce an interesting or novel effect in fabrics
novelty yarns
a pliable, planelike structure that can be made into two or three dimensional products that require some shaping and flexibility
fabric
yarns running in the lengthwise direction
warp
yarns running crosswise
filling
warp yarns are wound onto a _______ ______; the _______ is a frame to hold the heddles; a _______ is a wire with a hole through which a warp yarn is threaded; the yarns form a _______, a space through which the filling is inserted; and then the ________; the _______ pushes the filling yarn into place to make the fabric firm
warp beam; harness; heddle; shed; shuttles; reed
refers to the geometry or position of warp yarns relative to filling yarns in the fabric
grain
the simplest of the three basic weaves; right angles passing alternately over and under each other; 1/1 weave; no technical face or back
plain weave
warp and filling yarns are the same size and the same distance apart so that they show equally on the surface
balanced plain weave
lightweight, sheer, plain weave
ninon, georgette, chiffon, voile. organdy, organza
lightweight, opaque, plain weave
lawn, batiste, china silk, habutai, challi
low count, sheer, plain
cheesecloth, crinoline, buckram, gauze, bunting
medium weight, plain
print cloth, percale, calico, chintz, polished cotton, muslin, flannelette, outting flannel, gingham, chambray, madras
heavyweight, plain
weaver's cloth, homespun, crash, butcher cloth, burlap, osnaburg, flannel, tweed
there are significantly more yarns in one direction than the other
unbalanced plain weave
can be produced by increasing the reed pressure or by changing yarn size
ribs
occurs when one set of yarns gets pushed to one side and exposes the yarns that are normally covered
slippage
lightweight, ribbed
crepe de chine
medium weight, ribbed
broadcloth, taffeta, shantung
heavyweight, ribbed
poplin, faille, rep, bengaline, ottoman, grosgrain, bedford cord
made with two or more adjacent warps controlled by the same harness, and with two or more fillings placed in teh same shed
basket weave
basket weaves
dimity, oxford cloth, sailcloth,duck, canvas, hopsacking, monk's cloth
each warp or filling yarn floats across two or more filling or warp yarns with a progression of interlacings by one to the right or left, forming a distinct diagonal line
twill weave
characteristics of twill weave
have a technical face and a technical back; technical face has most pronounced wale; fabrics are softer and more pliable and recover better from wrinkles as compared with plain-weave fabrics
twill weaves
serge, twill flannel, sharkskin, herringbone, houndstooth
have a predominance of warp yarns on the face of the fabric; stronger and more resistant to abrasion
warp-faced twills
warp-faced twills
denim, jean, drill, covert, chino, garbadine, cavalry twill
each warp yarn gloats over four filling yarns(4/1) and interlaces with the fifth filling yarn with a progression of interlacings by two to the right or the left
satin weave
characteristics of satin weaves
lustrous; checkerboard designs; no two interlacings are adjacent; have a face and a back that look significantly different; satin is almost always warp-faced
warp satin
satin, crepe back satin
filling satin
sateen
woven figures made by changing the interlacing pattern between the design area and the background
fancy weaves
small figured designs that require fewer than 225 different warp arrangements to complete one repeat of the design
dobby weaves
dobby weaves
bird's eye; huck; waffle cloth; madras
additional warp or filling yarns of different colors or types are woven into the fabric to create a pattern
extra yarn weave
extra yarn weaves
clipped spot, clipped dot designs, swivel dot fabrics
weave produces a fabric with ridges that are held up by floats on the back
pique
pique weaves
wide-wale pique. pinwale pique, bedford cord, bird's-eye pique, bull's eye pique
large figured designs that require more than 25 different arrangements of the warp yarns to complete one repeat design
jacquard weaves
jacquard weaves
damask, brocade, brocatelle, jacquard tapestry, wilton rugs
a weave that presents no wale or other distinct weave effect but gives the cloth the appearance of being sprinkled with small spots or seeds
momie weave
momie weave is also called
granite or crepe weave
momie weaves
sand crepe, granite cloth, moss crepe, bark cloth
a weave in which the warp yarns do not lie parallel to each other; warp yarns work in groups, usually pairs of two; one yarn of each pair is crossed over the other before the filling yarn is inserted
leno weave
leno weaves
marquisette
made from three or more sets of yarns; two sides of fabric usually look different because of the fabrication method; tend to be heavier and have more body than single cloths
double cloth
made with five sets of yarns; two fabrics woven one above the other on the same look with the fifth yarn interlacing with both clothes; can be seperated by pulling out the yarns holding the two layers; refers both to fabrics made with three or more yarn sets and to specific fabrics made with five yarn sets
double cloth
double cloths
melton, kersey
made with four sets of yarns creating two separate layers of fabric that periodically reverse position from top to bottom, thus interlocking the two layers of fabric; creates pockets in the fabric
double weave
doubles weaves
matelasse
made with three sets of yarns; two warp and one filling or two sets of filling and one set of warp; blankets, satin ribbons, silence cloth...
double-faced fabrics
three dimensional structures made by weaving an extra set of warp or filling yarns into the ground yarns to make loops or cut ends on the surface
woven-pile fabrics
made by long filling floats on the surface that are cut after weaving
filling-pile fabrics
filling-pile fabrics
corduroy, velveteen
made with two sets of warp yarns and one set of filling; the extra set of warp yarns from the pile that can be cut or uncut
warp-pile fabrics
warp-pile fabrics
velvet
velvet can also be made using the ______ _______ method
double-cloth
pile with a ____ shape interlaces with more fillings yarns, is more resistance to shedding, is less dense, and more durable
W
a single cloth is woven with wires placed across the width of te loom so that they are positioned above the ground warp and under the pile warp
over-wire method
over-wire method fabrics
frieze
two warp beams are used; the yarns on one beam are held at regular tension and those on the other beam are held at slack tension; slack yarns crinkle or buckle to form a puckered stripe
slack-tension weave
slack tension weaves
terrycloth, seersucker
a hand produced, filling faced, plain weave fabric; the discontinuous yarns are arranged so that as the color in the weave changes, a pattern is created
tapestry weave
________ _________ weaves usually have larger filling yarns than warp yarns
true tapestry
a fabrication process in which needles are used to form a series of interlocking loops from one ore more yarns or from a set of yarns
knitting
filling is also called ______ in kniting
weft
_______ are vertical columns of stitches in the knit fabric
wales
_______ are horizontal rows in the knit fabric
courses
used to created a pattern in the fabric; old stitch is not cleared from the needle, two stitches on the needle
tuck stitch
used to create a pattern; no new stitch is formed at the needle
float stitch
a fabric that looks the same on both sides us this stitch
purl or reverse stitch
made using a circular or flatbed machine with one set of needles; can be any pattern or weight; less stable than double knits, tend to curl and run readily
single-filling knits
simplest form of the filling-knit structures; wales easier to see on front
single-jersey fabric
a fabric of lightweight to heavyweight; usually knit on a circular jersey machine and sold in tubular form or cut and sold as flat goods
jersey
a high quality jersey made of fine two ply yarns
lisle
simplest of knit pattern fabrics; pattern develops because different stitch types, yarn colors, or a combination
jacquard jersey
a more complicated patterned single knit fabric
intarsia
made on a modified circular jersey machine; looks like woven pile but are more pliable and stretchy
pile jersey
pile jersey surface may consist of either ____________ or _____________
-cut or uncut loops of yarn
-fibers
pile jersey fabrics
knitted terrycloth, velour, sliver-pile knits
an untwisted rope of fiber made by carding, drawing, or coming
sliver
_______ are vertical columns of stitches in the knit fabric
wales
_______ are horizontal rows in the knit fabric
courses
used to created a pattern in the fabric; old stitch is not cleared from the needle, two stitches on the needle
tuck stitch
used to create a pattern; no new stitch is formed at the needle
float stitch
a fabric that looks the same on both sides us this stitch
purl or reverse stitch
made using a circular or flatbed machine with one set of needles; can be any pattern or weight; less stable than double knits, tend to curl and run readily
single-filling knits
simplest form of the filling-knit structures; wales easier to see on front
single-jersey fabric
a fabric of lightweight to heavyweight; usually knit on a circular jersey machine and sold in tubular form or cut and sold as flat goods
jersey
a high quality jersey made of fine two ply yarns
lisle
simplest of knit pattern fabrics; pattern develops because different stitch types, yarn colors, or a combination
jacquard jersey
a more complicated patterned single knit fabric
intarsia
made on a modified circular jersey machine; looks like woven pile but are more pliable and stretchy
pile jersey
pile jersey surface may consist of either ____________ or _____________
-cut or uncut loops of yarn
-fibers
pile jersey fabrics
knitted terrycloth, velour, sliver-pile knits; fake furs
an untwisted rope of fiber made by carding, drawing, or coming
sliver
another yarn is laid in a course as it is being knit
weft-insertion jersey
weft insertion jersey fabrics
french terry, fleece
width of fabric is decreased; used to shape parts like armholes, neckline curves, collar points, and finish edges
fashioning
made using a machine with two beds of needles; may be made with one or more sets of yarns
double-filling knits
two beds are positioned so that both needles can knit at the same time
rib gaiting
needles are positioned so that only one needle bed can knit at a time
interlock gaiting
both needle beds are on the same plane so that the double latch needle can travel between the two beds
purl gaiting
made of face wales and back wales; lengthwise ridges are formed on both sides of the fabric by pulling stitches first to the face and next to the back of the fabric in adjacent tor groups of stitches
rib structure
looks the same on both sides; made with rib gaiting
double-knit jersey
simplest double-knit fabric produced using interlock gaiting; composed of two 1x1 rib structures; two sides look alike and resemble the face of single jersey; runs more easily
interlock
have almost limitless design possibilities; interlacing of two yarns in the same as for the double-knit jersey but with added needle-selecting mechanisms
jacquard double knits
usually made on machines with two needles beds and double latch needles with purl gaiting
purl knits
warp knit fabric; the face of the fabric is formed of the vertical portion of loops; the back has the horizontal portion of loops; does not ravel
tricot knit
have fibers raised from the surface, feels like velvet
brushed or napped tricots
a hexagonal net used for veiling, support fabrics, and overlays for apparel
tulle
have rows of chainlike loops called pillars, with laid in yarns in various lapping configurations; one or two needle beds with latch needles set in a vertical position
raschel-warp knits
raschel-warp knits
lace, thermal cloth, power net
the inserted yarn is caught in a vertical chain of stitching
warp-insertion warp knits
this fabric is made from two sets of warp yarns, with one needle bar and one guide bar; the lapping movements move so that each warp yarn travels across the full width of the fabric,this produces a diagonal formation
milanese
made directly from polymer solution by melt-extrusion or by casting the solution onto a hot drum
films
three types of films
-plain
-expanded
-supported films
made by incorporating air into an elasticlike substance; bulkiness and sponginess
foams
most common type of foam
polyurethane
fabrics that are not made from yarn
nonwovens
spun-laid webs made immediately after fibers are extruded from spinnerets; continuous hot filaments are laid down in a random fashion on a fast-moving conveyor belt and their semimelted state fuse together at their cross points; high tensile and tear strength and low bulk
spun-bonded
products from spun-bonded
carpet backings, geotextiles, adhesive carriers, protective apparel, insulation
similar to spun-bonded except that jets of water are forced through the web, shattering the filaments into staple fibers and producing a wovenlike structure; greater elasticity and flexibility
spun-laced
spun-laced products
medical gowns and drapes, roofing substrates, mattress pads
consists of passing a dry-laid web over a needle loom as many time as is necessary to produce the desired strength and texture
needle punching
a mat or web of wool, or mostly wool, fibers held together by the interlocking of the wool scares; one of the oldest methods of making fabrics
felt
narrow fabrics in which yarns interlace lengthwise and diagonally; good elongation characteristics and are very pliable
braids
another basic fabric made from yarns using several different fabrication methods; may be twisted around each other to create open areas; an open network fabric with complex fabrics or figures
lace
combines a textile fabric with a polymer film; film protects from environmental factors
coated fabric
a fine natural or synthetic surface fiber is applied after a base fabric has been produced; used to imitate extra yarn weaves or all-over to imitate pile fabrics
flocking
a process of making pile fabrics by stitching extra yarns into a fabric base or substrate
tufting
refers to the distance in inches between the tufting needles
gauge
fabrics in which two layers of fabric are combined into one with an adhesive of foam
laminates
usually refers to a fabric in which an adhesive was used
laminate
usually refers to a fabric in which a foam was used
bonded
3 methods of bonding
-wet-adhesive method
-foam-flame method
-hot-melt or dry-heat method
combine textile structures by adhering fabric layers with fiber or yarn loops, chemical adhesives, or fusion of thermoplastic fibers
stitch bonded fabrics
composite fabrics consisting of three layers: face fabric, fiberfill or batting, and backing fabric
quilted fabrics
characteristics of laminated fabrics
-two ore more fabrics are adhered together by a wet or hot melt adhesive or foam flame process
-less expensive than double weave or double knit
-gives warmth without weight
-produces lightweight fabrics for outerwear
characteristics of quilts
-one or two fabrics and fiberfill, wading, batting, or foam stitched together by machine or by hand or are welded by sonic vibrations
-bulky, warm, and decorative
-quilted fabrics are used in ski jackets, robes, quilts, and upholstery
processed from skins and hides of animals, reptiles, fish, and birds
leather
a popular leather for coats, jackets, etc.; soft, dull surface usually is made by napping on the flesh side or on one side of a split to pull up the fibers
suede
any animal skin or part of an animal skin to which the hair, fleece, or fur fibers are attached
fur
any process that is done to fiber, yarn, or fabric either before or after fabrication to change the appearance, the hand, or the performance
finish
fabrics that have been produced but have received no wet or dry finishing operations
grey goods
burns ends of fibers projecting from the surface
singeing
sizing added to the warp yarns in the slashing step is removed
desizing
use of a cellulase enzyme treatment to remove surface fuzz from spun yarns
bio-polishing
general term referring to removal of foreign matter or soil from fabric prior to finishing or dyeing
scouring
process of whitening fibers, yarns, or fabrics by removing irregular natural color
bleaching
used to whiten off-white fabrics
optical brighteners
process of treating a cellulosic fabric or yarn with an alkali
mercerization
steps in producing a fabric
1) fiber processing
2) yarn processing
3) yarn preparation
4) fabrication
5) fabric preparation
6) whitening
7) further preparation steps
8) coloration
9) finishing
10) reworking
one of the most important finishing operations, applies crosswise and lengthwise tension to a fabric while it dries; function is to produce fabric that meets specifications for width and width uniformity, and warp and filling count
tentering
fabric is usually placed on a tenter frame and passed through an oven, where the time of exposure and the temp are carefully controlled based on the fiber content and resins added to the fabric
heat setting
a mechanical finishing operation performed by a series of rollers between which the fabric passes; simple calendar produces a smooth, flat, ironed finish on the fabric
calendering
types of calendering
simple, friction, moire, schreiner, embossing
includes inspecting fabric for defects or flaws and repairing those problems wherever possible
reworking
corrects flaws marked by inspectors
repairing
a wool-finishing process used to set wool fabrics
crabbing
produces a smooth, wrinkle free finish and lofty hand on woolen and worsted fabrics and on blends of wool and manufactured fibers
decating
treatment of wool yarns or fabrics with sulfuric acid, destroys plant matter in the fabric and allows for more level dyeing
carbonizing
used with wool or wool blends; fabric is placed between metal plates that steam and press the fabric
pressing
a finishing chemical is added to the fabric
additive finishes
something is removed from the fabric during finishing
subtractive finishes
produce a change in a fabric's light reflectance
luster finishes
produces a highly glazed surface
friction calendar
similar to a glazed finish, except that the metal roll is hot; produces greater luster
cire finish
very thin layer of polymer added to the dyed fabric
plasticize finish
have a wood grain or watermarked appearance
moire finish
two layers of unbalanced plain-weave rib fabric such as taffeta or faille are placed face to face so that the ribs of the top layer are slightly off-grain in relation to the underlayer
true moire
have a softer luster than most of the other luster finishes
schreiner calender
created using an embossing calender that produces either flat or raised designs on the fabric
embossed fabrics
transparent or parchment effects in cotton fabrics are produced by treatment with sulfuric acid
parchmentizing
produced by printing a chemical solvent on a blend fabric made of fibers from different groups, leaving sheer areas
burned-out
produces a smooth, wrinkle free finish and lofty hand on woolen and worsted fabrics and on blends of wool and manufactured fibers
decating
treatment of wool yarns or fabrics with sulfuric acid, destroys plant matter in the fabric and allows for more level dyeing
carbonizing
used with wool or wool blends; fabric is placed between metal plates that steam and press the fabric
pressing
a finishing chemical is added to the fabric
additive finishes
something is removed from the fabric during finishing
subtractive finishes
produce a change in a fabric's light reflectance
luster finishes
produces a highly glazed surface
friction calendar
similar to a glazed finish, except that the metal roll is hot; produces greater luster
cire finish
very thin layer of polymer added to the dyed fabric
plasticize finish
have a wood grain or watermarked appearance
moire finish
two layers of unbalanced plain-weave rib fabric such as taffeta or faille are placed face to face so that the ribs of the top layer are slightly off-grain in relation to the underlayer
true moire
have a softer luster than most of the other luster finishes
schreiner calender
created using an embossing calender that produces either flat or raised designs on the fabric
embossed fabrics
transparent or parchment effects in cotton fabrics are produced by treatment with sulfuric acid
parchmentizing
produced by printing a chemical solvent on a blend fabric made of fibers from different groups, leaving sheer areas
burned-out