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69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
organisms that are present all of the time in and on the body are said to be
endemic
the scientific study of microorganisms is
microbiology
disease producing agents are called
pathogens
microorganisms that require oxygen
aerobes
microorganisms that cannot survive in the present of
oxygen
anaerobes
microoganism that can live in either the presence or absence of oxygen
facultative anaerobes
microorganisms that live on or within another living being.
parasites
live off the organic remains of dead plants and animals
saprophytes
all microoganisms require ________ or _________ to grow
water or moisture
microorganisms survive only in environments with a pH that is
neither too acidic nor too alkaline
_______ are used to identify the organism and to determine ways in which to arrest the growth of the pathogen.
cultures
Culture media must start out ________.
sterile
_______________is ordered when infection is suspected or known.
A culture and sensitivity (C&S) test
The C&S test serves the following purposes:
1. Identifies the pathogenic microorganism
2. Determines which treatment will eliminate the microorganism
3. Monitors the microorganism's response to therapy
The culture and sensitivity report will indicate
1. the name of the test ordered
2. type of specimen
3. type of report
4. colony count
5. type of microorganism 6.susceptibility testing.
7. the various antibiotics (if any) to which the organism is sensitive.
collect specimens for cultures before administering antibiotic therapy. Why?
Antibiotics can temporarily lower the number of pathogens in the person's bloodstream, masking signs of affection
Fungi include ......
single-celled yeasts and the multicellular molds
An infection caused by a fungus is called a _______
mycosis.
Yeasts require ________________ as their food
sugars in solution
____________ those not-typically-disease-causing microorganisms normally found in and on healthy individuals.
Normal flora
An infection caused by a fungus is called a _______.
mycosis
______ grow best at room temperature and with refrigeration and have a musty smell.
Molds
give molds their characteristic color
Spores
One infection caused by molds that infects the lungs is_________
histoplasmosis
_________ are single-celled microorganisms visible under an ordinary laboratory microscope
Protozoa
Although most ______ are nonpathogenic, there are some notable exceptions.
protozoa
______________is caused by Entamoeba histolytica, which forms ulcers in the colon and attacks red blood cells.
Amoebic dysentery
___________is caused by a protozoan known as Plasmodium malariae. It reproduces in the Anopheles mosquito, and the insect then transmits it to people through bites.
Malaria
_________________ causes vaginal infection in women and urinary tract infection in men. It is often transmitted from an infected individual to an uninfected partner by sexual intercourse.
Trichomonas vaginalis
The ___________are the most abundant form of life on the planet and were the first cells to appear on earth, approximately 4 billion years ago
prokaryotes
The ____________ of the organism is the structure that either allows a stain (called a Gram's stain) to be retained or not
cell envelope
In _______________, the cell envelope is a thick layer of murein, and it retains the stain, showing a purple color
gram-positive bacteria
In ______________, the murein layer is thin and is surrounded by an outer membrane. In this case, the stain is not retained, and the organism looks pink.
gram-negative bacteria
________ are fairly long protein filaments on the cell surface (singular: flagellum). They provide the cell with the ability to move by a “swimming” motion called motility or spontaneous movement
Flagella
A round or spherical bacterium is called a ________
coccus
A rod-shaped bacterium is known as a _________
bacillus
A spiral-shaped bacterium has the name ________
spirillum
To be pathogenic, bacteria must possess the following characteristics
1. Ability to colonize and invade the host
2. Ability to resist or endure the antibacterial defenses of the host
3. Ability to form substances that are toxic to the host
Neisseria are diplococci in shape and cause _________________
gonorrhea, upper respiratory infections, and infectious meningitis
The _________________is responsible for suppurative (pus-forming) infections
bacillus Pseudomonas
Rickettsiae are a special form of bacteria. Name their characteristics.
1. Some of them are bacilli and others are cocci.
2.
They can grow only within the cell of another organism, the host.
3. are transmitted to people through the bite of an infected insect or tick.
Resulting infections range from mild to fatal.
One form of rickettsiae causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever.
Members of the typhus group cause epidemic and endemic typhus.
_____________ are gram-positive bacteria that are always present in the environment and are normal inhabitants of the skin and respiratory tract
Staphylococci
_________________is the most dangerous of this group: it produces poisons called toxins and frequently resists antibiotics. It can be responsible for serious or fatal infections in newborns and postsurgical clients.
Staphylococcus aureus
___________ are also gram-positive; they are common body inhabitants. Members of this group cause “strep throat,” pneumococcal pneumonia, and scarlet fever
Streptococci
Many gram-positive bacilli form spores, such as those from _______________, one of which causes botulism (a form of food poisoning).
the genus Clostridium
A respiratory tract infection known as tuberculosis (TB) is caused by the__________. It can also be in other parts of the body. ________________________________
tubercle bacillus (a rod) Mycobacterium tuberculosis
To help prevent the development of drug-resistant bacteria and the spread of disease, you can take several measures.
1. Take antibiotics only as prescribed.
2. Take antibiotics for the entire period prescribed, even if symptoms of illness disappear.
3. Do not share antibiotics with others or take their “leftover medications.”
4. To avoid development of resistant strains, discuss the necessity of antibiotics for mild bacterial infections with your healthcare provider.
5. Do not use antibiotics for viral infections.
____________________________________________________ is also known as the “superbug.”
The organism MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus)
or HA-MRSA (healthcare-associated MRSA)
People with MRSA who have not been hospitalized or who have not had an invasive medical procedure within the past year are said to have __________________
CA-MRSA, or community-associated MRSA.)
__________is today's most prevalent nosocomial illness or infection (one originating in a healthcare facility).
HA-MRSA
Most of the cases of _________ involve skin or soft tissue infections, such as an abscess or cellulitis. The major route of transmission is via contaminated hands (of healthcare workers).
HA-MRSA
are protein-covered sacs containing the genetic material of either DNA or ribonucleic acid (RNA) and other organic materials
Viruses
___________ is the most effective means of preventing viral infections such as measles and polio.
Immunization
_______ affect every system and tissue of the body
Viruses
One of the most well-known and deadly viruses is the __________________________________
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS.
Microbiologists use the term __________ to describe the specific cause of a disease.
etiology
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is dedicated ________________________
to the study of pathogens and the control of communicable diseases.
The chain of infection contains the following elements:
1. Pathogenic microorganism
2. Reservoir in which the pathogenic microorganism can live and grow
3. Portal of exit from which the microorganism can leave the reservoir
4. Vehicle to transmit the organism
5. Portal of entry through which the microorganism can enter the host
6. Susceptible host in which the microorganism can find a reservoir
__________is any place where a microorganism can survive before moving to a place where it can multiply
reservoir
Transmission of Infectious Disease includes......
1. Direct or indirect contact
2. Airborne
3. Food-borne
4. Water-borne
5. Vectors
6. Contaminated articles
7. Blood-borne
____ is spread through the air; thus, when treating clients you should use ________________
TB

airborne precautions.
A pathogen's strength to cause disease is called its _________
virulence
The first stage in the normal course fo infection is the ..................................
incubation period, the time from when the pathogen enters the body to the appearance of the first symptoms of illness.
Viruses cause disease by
by taking over the host cell's metabolism and genetic material and by reproducing in extremely large numbers.
Which of the following is the correct sequence for the chain of infection?
Performing handwashing
Which of the following is the correct sequence for the chain of infection?
Reservoir, portal of exit, vehicle of transmission, portal of entry, susceptible host
Why is it vital for nurses to learn about microorganisms?
To prevent the spread of diseases
Which nursing education measure would be appropriate to help prevent the development of drug-resistant bacteria?
Taking antibiotics as prescribed
Which of the following organisms can be classified according to physical shape, movement, Gram's stain reaction, and relationship to oxygen?
Bacteria