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71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Literal comprehension
requests readers to respond to questions and statments from stated text
Reading readiness skills
alphabetic knowledge
conventional literacy
kind of reading and writing that is taught in elementary school
Orthography
As children attempt to pronounce a word they gain information from the way a word is spelled
Phonology
They way a word is pronounced
Semantics
The way a word is defined
Meaning of words and combinations of words
Segmentation
The recognition of the sounds heard in a word
Syntax
The sentence structure
Language Experience Approach (LEA)
An instructional method that incorporates the various components of language arts by using children’s experience and backgrounds as the language structure of developing stories individually or in a heterogeneous group
Nonstandard dialects
Dialects used by children who speak only English, by bilingual students, and by multilingual students
Language Interference
Use of sounds, syntax, and vocabulary of two languages simultaneously as a child participates in literacy activities
Bilingual education
Involves presenting reading and other subject area materials in the child’s native language while gradually introducing English orally
English-as-a-Second Language (ESL)
Teachers may work with children from a variety of countries who speak a number of languages placed together in one class
Graphophonic
sound/symbol relationships
Syntactic
Patterns of phrases, clauses, and sentences
Facilitative
Skills such as word analysis that enable a reader to identify words
To be proficient in word analysis, children need to develop an effective sight vocabulary and know how to use contextual and structural analysis as well as phonics skills
These skills are not considered reading
Functional
A part of reading that is the actual understanding or comprehension of what has been read
Word Walls
A list of words children are learning or know posted on a poster (or an actual wall in a classroom) in a highly visible location
Homophones
Words that sound the same but have different spellings and meanings
Ex: He is wearing a red shirt. He read the book
Homographs
Words spelled the same but have different pronunciations and meanings
Ex: She is wearing a red bow. She will bow to the queen
Idioms
Figurative sayings that have special meanings
Ex: Keep your shirt on! - means Don’t get angry
Metaphors
Comparison of two unlike things without using as or like
Ex: The moon was a silver dollar against the night sky.
Similes
Comparisons between two things of different kind or quality using like or as
Ex: The rain came down like transparent sheets
Word Sorts
Sorting a collection of words taken from a word wall or other source into two or more categories
Semantic map (word cluster)
Writing a word or concept in the center circle of a cluster, drawing rays, writing information about the word or concept, and making connections between the word or concept and the related unit of study
Thematic Units
Used to connect the various components of language arts (speaking, reading, spelling, writing, and listening, etc.) with other content areas
Trade Books
Children’s literature sources that teachers sometimes use in instructional settings instead of basal readers or textbooks
Conversation
In formal speaking activity involving two or more persons taking turns talking about a subject
Show-and-tell
Builds the speaker’s confidence and stimulates conversation
Provides an important link between home and school because the child brings something from home that is special to him/her
Children are more articulate when they are talking about something that is well known and important to them
Discussions
Focused conversation about a specific topic
Puppets
Are used for confidence builders
Characters made from a variety of materials that are used in oral language
It becomes the center of attention so the child feels less self-conscious and can therefore be more articulate
Choral Reading
Allows children to orally share written words
Readers’ Theater
Involves children reading from a prepared script or from a script that children have written
Learn to project the voice of characters, bring characters to life, and have eye contact with their audience
Phonological Awareness
The ability to use letter-sound knowledge to identify an unknown word
Phonemic Awareness
The ability to recognize that spoken words are made up of a sequence of individual sounds that contributes to the young reader’s ability to recognize and pronounce unknown words
Rhyming
Requires the young reader to recognize rhymes or to produce patterns of rhyming words
Initially developed through listening and is the least difficult phonemic awareness task to develop
Ex: The girl saw a hat when she was sitting next to a cat
Alliteration
Requires the young read to recognize words in a sentence or phrase that mostly begin with the same letter sound
Ex: Tall Tella took tiny tots to town.
Blending
Requires the young reader to blend a series of orally produced sounds to form a word
Ex: the teacher would produce the separate sounds of /t/, /o/, /p/ to the reader and expect the reader to say top
Segmenting beginning and ending sounds in words
The young reader who has the ability to hear sounds in words should be able to hear and identify sounds at the beginning or end of a word
The teacher could ask the reader to identify the sound heard at the beginning of the word top and also the sound heard at the end
Phonemes
The smallest unit of sound in a language that distinguishes one word from another word
Invented spelling
Written approximation based on how a child determines the spelling of a word
Alphabetic Principle
States that there is a one-to-one correspondence between alphabet letters (graphemes) and sounds (phonemes)
Graphophonemic Knowledge
The understanding that written words are made up of systematic letter patterns that represent sounds in pronounced words
Alphabetic recognition
Is an important skill to develop because children use this skill to acquire reading, spelling, and writing ability
Emergent Literacy
Reading and writing experiences that a child encounters before formal literacy instruction begins
Reading Fluency
The ability to decode words quickly and accurately in order to read text with the appropriate word stress, pitch and intonation pattern (or prosody)
Requires automaticity of word recognition and reading with prosody to facilitate comprehension
relates to a student’s being able to:
Orally read a test source by using accuracy in pronouncing words
Comprehend effectively because attention is given to textual meaning
Provide expression that includes attention to punctuation
Read with a rate that is appropriate for the purpose identified for reading the text source
Fluency
Continuous flow of word recognition
Automaticity
the quick and accurate recognition of letters, words, and language conventions
Achieved through continuous practice using texts written at the reading level of the child
Scaffolding
support for a learner as he/she enters a phase of readiness for a new skill
Genres
types of children's literature. Include picture books, folk literature, poetry, mysteries and biographies
basal reader
a collection of stories that match the instruction level of children
Affix
a structural element added to the beginning or ending of a root or base word in order to alter the meaning, pronunciation, or function
Ex: prefixes and suffixes such as un- (uncontrollable) or -ness (happiness)
Consonant blend or cluster
Two or three letters in the same syallable that are blended together or heard when pronounced.
Ex: "tr" in tree
Consonant digraph
A combination of two or more letters that represent a sound that is different from the speech sound that the letters represent individually.
Ex: "ch" in chop, "sh" in shop, "th" in thank, "wh" in whether, and "ph" in phone
Decode
associating printed letters with the speech sounds the letters make
Diphthong
Two adjacent vowels in which each vowel is heard in the pronunciation
Ex: "ou" in house, "oi" in oil, "oy" in boy, and "ow" in brown
Grapheme
A written or printed letter symbol used to represent a speech sound (phoneme)
Grapheme-phoneme relationship
The relationship between printed letters and the sounds they represent
Logographic awareness
The first stage children experience when leraning about words. Words are learned as whole units that are sometimes embedded in a logo such as a stop sign or the arches in the McDonald's sign
Morpheme
The smallest meaningful unit of a language.
Ex: "cat" is a morpheme whose pronunciation consists of three phonemes (c/a/t)
Onset
the consonants that come at the beginning of syllables in words.
Ex: the "bl" in the word blend is an onset
rimes
are vowels and consonants at the end of a syllable.
Ex: "end" in the word blend is a rime
Phonic analysis
The process of applying knowledge of letter-sound relationships to decoding texts. Teachers ask for this when they instruct children to sound out a word
Schwa sound
In many words that are multisyllabic, one of the syllables receives less or diminished stress. The sound of the vowel in the syllable that receives the diminished stress has a softening of the vowel sound that is identified as schwa sound and often pronounced as the "uh" sound. The word about contains the schwa sound
Sight vocabulary
Any words a reader can recognize instantly without having to use any type of word recognition strategy. When a word cannot be taught with another word recognition strategies such as onsets and rimes it is usally taught as a sight word
Syllable
Divisions of speech sounds within words. Each has one vowel sound. An open syllable ends in a vowel and a closed syllable ends in a consonant.
Vowel digraph
Two adjacent vowels that represent one speech sound.
Ex: ee in feet, oo in foot, ea in meat, and ai in sail
Word analysis
An inclusive term that refers to all methods of word recognition. Phonics is one such method. Other methods include picture clues (using pictures and graphic aids to assist in word pronunciation and meaning), sight words and structural analysis (which focuses on root words, base words, affixes, compound words, syllable division, and contractions)
Zone of proximal development
discoveringthe place where children can be successful with some assistance from an adult or a capable peer
inferential comprehension
requests the readers use ideas and information that are directly stated in the text along with their intuition, background, and experiences to reach a conclusion or a hypothesis
Evaluative comprehension
requires that children compare information and ideas presented in the text with their own experiences, background, and values