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### 31 Cards in this Set

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 Push and Pull? Pushing a volleyball or pulling a bowstring applies muscular force when the muscles expand and contract. Elastic force is when any object returns to its original shape (for example when a bow is released). Rubbing? Friction opposes the motino of one surface past another. Friction is common when slowing down a car or sledding down a hill. Pull of gravity? Pull of gravity is a force of attraction between two objects. Gravity questions can be raised not only on earth but also between planets and even black hole discussions. Forces on objects at rest? The formula F=m/a is shorthand for force equals mass over acceleration. An object will not move unless the force is strong enough to move the mass. Also, there can be opposing forces holding the object in place. Forces on a moving object? Overcoming inertia is the tendency of any object to oppose a change in motion. An object at rest tends to stay at rest. An object that is moving tends to keep moving. Inertia and circular motion? The centripetal force is provided by the high banking of the curved road and by friction between the wheels and the road. This inward force that keeps an object moving in a circle is called centripetal force. Kenematics? The science of describing the motion of bodies is known as kinematics. The motion of bodies is described using words, diagrams, numbers, graphs and equations. Words that describe motion? The motion of bodies is described using the following words: distance, displacement, speed, velocity and acceleration. Distance? Distance is a scalar quantity that refers to how much ground an object has covered while moving. Displacement? Displacement is a vector quantity that refers to be object's change in position. Speed? Speed is a scalar quantity that refers to how fast an object is moving. Velocity? Velocity is a vector quantity that refers to the rate at which an object changes its position. In other words, velocity is speed with direction. (ex. the car was traveling 60 mi./hr east). Instantaneous speed? Instantaneous speed is speed at any given instant in time. Average speed? Average speed is the average of all instantaneous speeds, found simply by a distance/time ratio. Acceleration? Acceleration is a vector quantity defined as the rate at which an object changes it velocity. Scalars and vectors? The two categories of mathematical quantities that are used to describe the motion of objects are scalars and vectors. Scalars? Scalars are quantities that are fully described by magnitude alone. Examples of scalars are 5m and 20 degrees Celsius. Vectors? Vectors are quantities that are fully described by magnitude and direction. Examples of vectors are 30m.sec, and 5 miles north. Newton's Three Laws of Motion? First Law: An object at rest tends to stay at rest and an object in motion tends to stay in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. Second Law: The acceleration of an object depends directly upon the net force acting upon the object, and inversely upon the mast of the object. As net force increases, so will the object's acceleration. However, as the mass of the object increases, its acceleration will decrease. F=M*A. Third Law: For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction, for example, when a bird is flying, the motion of its wings pushes air downward; the air reacts by pushing the bird upward. Inertia? Inertia is the resistance an object has to a change in its state of motion. Dynamics? Dynamics is the study of the relationship between motion and the forces affecting motion. Force causes motion. Friction? Surfaces that touch each other have a certain resistance to motion. This resistance is friction. Static friction? Static friction describes the force of friction of two surfaces that are in contact but do not have any motion relative to each other, such as a block sitting on an inclined plane. Kinetic friction? Kinetic friction describes the force of friction of two surfaces in contact with each other when there is relative motion between the surfaces. Centripetal force? When an object moves in a circular path, a force must be directed toward the center of the circle in order to keep the motion going. This constraining force is called centripetal force. Gravity is the centripetal force that keeps a satellite circling the earth. Simple machines? Simple machines include the following: 1. inclined plane 2. lever 3. wheel and axle 4. pulley In simple machines, force is applied in only one direction. Kinetic Molecular Theory? According to Kinetic Molecular Theory, ions, atoms or molecules in all forms of matter (gases, liquids, or solids) are in constant motion. Pressure? The collisions of moving matter produces a measurable force known as pressure. Pressure is a measurement of the force per unit area. Explain blood pressure. Blood flowing through the arteries exerts pressure against the walls of the arteries. If there is a reduction in the diameter of the arteries due to plaque or disease, the pressure called systemic vacular resistance (SVR) is increased. Density? Density is the measure of an object's mass per volume. Buoyant force? Buoyant force is the upward force exerted by fluid on materials of lower density.