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106 Cards in this Set

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WHAT ARE THREE ESSENTIAL FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM?
-RECEIVE SENSORY INFORMATION
-INTEGRATE AND INTERPRET INFORMATION
-INITIATE MOTOR RESPONSES
IN ITS BROADEST SENSE, A SENSATION IS (3)?
-CONSCIOUS
-SUBCONSCIOUS
-UNCONSCIOUS AWARENESS OF EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL STIMULI
WHAT ARE THE LEVELS OF TRANSLATION
-SPINAL REFLEXES
-VISCERAL REFLEXES(BRAINSTEM)
-CRUDE IDENTIFICATION(THALAMUS)
-PRECISE IDENTIFICATION(CEREBRAL CORTEX)
THE NATURE OF THE SENSATION AND THE TYPE OF REACTION GENERATED BY THE CNS VARY WITH?
THE LEVEL OF THE CNS AT WHICH THE STIMULUS IS TRANSLATED
WHAT IS MODALITY?

ONE MODALITY IS CARRIED BY WHAT?
-A SPECIFIC TYPE OF SENSATION
-THE DISTINC QUALITY THAT MAKES ONE SENSATION DIFFERENT FROM ANOTHER.

BY A GIVEN SENSORY NEURON
EACH OF THE PRINCIPLE TYPES OF SENSATION IS CALLED A?
WHAT ARE THEY(4)?
-MODALITY OF SENSATION

TOUCH, PAIN, SIGHT, SOUND
EACH SOMATOSENSORY RECEPTOR IS RESPONSIVE TO HOW MANY TYPES OF STIMULUS ENERGY?
ONE
_________ IS A KEY PROPERTY OF A RECEPTOR, IT UNDERLINES THE MOST IMPRTANT CODING MECHANISM CALLED?
SPECIFICITY

THE LABELED LINE PRINCIPLE
THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RECEPTOR AND THE _____CONNECTIONS OF THE ______ CONNECTED TO THE RECEPTOR DETERMINE HOW THE SENSATION IS PERCEIVED.
CENTRAL
AXON
WHAT IS THE KEY PROPERTY OF A RECEPTOR THAT UNDERLINES THE MOST IMPORTANT MECHANISM
SPECIFICITY
WHAT IS A CHANGE IN SENSORY RECEPTOR SENSITIVITY CALLED?
IT IS USUALLY A ________ TO LONG LASTING STIMULUS.
ADAPTATION

DECREASE
WHAT IS A NAME FOR FAST ADAPTING RECEPTORS?
WHAT DO THEY SENSE?
PHASIC

PRESSURE, TOUCH AND SMELL
WHAT a THE NAME FOR THE SLOW ADAPTING RECEPTORS?
WHAT TYPE OF RECEPTORS ARE THEY?
TONIC

PAIN,
PROPIOCEPTORS(POSITION)
CHEMORECEPTORS
SLOW ADAPTING(TONIC) RECEPTORS ARE IMPORTANT IS SIGNALING INFORMATION REGARDING WHAT?
THE STEADY STATES OF THE BODY
SOMATOSENSORY PATHWAYS ARE AFFERENT OR EFFERENT?
AFFERENT
CARRY SENSORY INPUT UP THE CORD FROM THE BODY TO THE BRAIN.
WHAT ARE THE TWO TYPES OF SENSORY RECEPTORS?
FAST ADAPTING(PHASIC)
AND
SLOW ADAPTING(TONIC)
THE SOMATOSENSORY PATHWAYS CLASSIFIED AS AFFERENT TRANSMIT WHAT FROM THE BODY TO THE BRAIN
TEMPERATURE, PAIN, PRESSURE
TOUCH, VIBRATORY SENSE, PROPRIOCEPTION
VISION TASTE, HEARING, SMELL AND EQUILIBRIUM
PERIPHERAL RECEPTORS-
THERE ARE 3 DIFF. MODALITIES OF THE SOMATOSENSORY SYSTEM.
WHAT ARE THEY
-DISCRIMINATIVE TOUCH
-PAIN AND TEMP. SENSATIONS
-PROPRIOCEPTION OR POSITION SENSE
PERCEPTION OF PRESSUE RELIES ON 4 DIFF. RECEPTORS IN THE SKIN WHAT ARE THEY? WHICH ONES ARE FAST OR RAPID ADAPTING?
MEISSNER'S CORPUSCLES (FAST)
PACINIAN CORPUSCLES(FAST)
(QUICKLY STOP FIRING IN RESPNSE TO CONSTANT STIMULUS)
MERKEL'S DISKS
RUFFINI ENDINGS
(SLOW ADAPTING, DO NOT STOP FIRING)
WHEN AN OBJECT PLACED ON HAND, WHAT RECEPTORS FIRE AS IT TOUCHES BUT STOP. WHAT RECEPTORS CONTINUE FIRING TO LET YOU KNOW SOMETHING IS STILL ON YOUR HAND?
MEISSNER'S AND PACINIAN CORPUSCLES

MERKEL'S AND RUFFINI
DOES THE PAIN AND TEMPERATURE SYSTEM HAVE SPECIALIZED RECEPTOR ORGANS?
WHAT DOES IT USE FOR RECEPTORS
NO

FREE NERVE ENDINGS
WHAT ARE TWO TYPES OF FREE NERVE ENDING USED IN PAIN AND TEMP SYSTEM?
NOCICEPTORS- FOR PAIN
THERMORECEPTORS FOR TEMPERATURE SENSATIONS
WHERE ARE THE FREE NERVE ENDINGS FOUND? AND WHAT DO THEY PERCEIVE
SKIN, MUSCLE, BONE AND CONNECTIVE TISSUE.
THEY PERCEIVE CHANGES IN TEMPERATURE AND PAIN PEPTIDES
PAIN WILL RESULT AS DAMAGE TO A FREE NERVE ENDING HOWEVER, MOST PAIN IS A RESULT OF SUBSTANCES RELEASED. WHAT ARE THEY?
PROSTAGLANDINS
HISTAMINE
SUBSTANCE P
FREE NERVE ENDING HAVE RECEPTORS FOR THESE SUBSTANCES RELEASED AS A RESULT OF DAMAGED TISSUE. WHAT ARE THEY?(3)
PROSTAGLANDINS
HISTAMINE
SUBSTANCE P
PROPRIOCEPTIVE SENSATION RELIES ON RECEPTORS FOUND WHERE?
MUSCLE AND JOINTS
WHAT IS THE MAJOR STRETCH RECEPTOR IN THE MUSCLES?
WHAT TWO COMPONENTS DOES IT HAVE?
MUSCLE SPINDLE

RAPID AND SLOW ADAPTING RECEPTORS LIKE CUTANEOUS RECEPTOS
WHAT TWO STRUCTURES OF PROPRIOCETIVE SENSATION ARE FOUND TO MONITOR STRESSES AND FORCES AT TENDONS AND JOINTS? (2)
GOLGI TENDON ORGAN AND JOINT AFFERENTS
NAME FOUR MECHANORECEPTORS
PACINIAN CORPUSCLE
MEISSNERS CORPUSCLE
MERKEL'S DISK
RUFFINI'S ENDING
NAME FOUR NOCICEPTORS
MECHANICAL NOCICEPTORS
THERMAL NOCICEPTOR
CHEMICALLY SENSITIVE, MECHANICALLY
POLYMODAL NOCICEPTORS
NAME TWO THERMORECEPTORS
COLD AND WARM RECEPTORS
NAME TWO PROPRIOCEPTORS
MUSCLE SPINDLES
GOLGI TENDON ORGANS
NAME RECEPTORS THAT ARE FAST RECEPTORS THAT ARE ADAPTING WITH LARGE RECEPTIVE FIELDS FOR SIGNIFYING THE BEGINNING AND END OF GROSS SOMATOSENSATIONS
PACINI CORPUSCLES
NAME THE FAST ADAPTING WITH SMALL RECEPTIVE FIELDS TO SIGNIFY THE BEGINNING AND END OF FINE SOMATOSENSATIONS
MEISSNER'S CORPUSCLES
NAME THE RECEPTORS THAT ARE SLOW ADAPTING WITH SMALL RECEPTIVE FIEDLS TO SIGNIFY SUSTAINED AND FINE SOMATOSENSATIONS?
MERKEL'S DISK
NAME THE RECEPTOR THAT IS SLOW ADAPTING WITH LARGE RECEPTIVE FIELDS TO SIGNIFY SUSTAINED AND GROSS SOMATOSENSATIONS?
RUFFINI'S ENDING
RECEPTOR THAT RESPNDS TO STRONG PRESSURE AND SHARP OBJECTS?
MECHANICAL NOCICEPTOR
RECEPTOR THAT RESPONDS TO BURNING HEAT OR EXTREME COLD
THERMAL NOCICEPTOR
RECEPTOR THAT RESPONDS TO EXTREME PH AND TO IRRITANTS
CHEMICALLY SENSITIVE AND MECHANICALLY INSENSITIVE NOCICEPTORS
RECEPTOR THAT RESPONDS TO COMBINATIONS OF MECHANICAL, THERMAL, AND CHEMICAL STIMULI
POLYMODAL NOCICEPTORS
RECEPTORS THAT RESPOND TO TEMPS BETWEEN 30 AND 45 DEGREES CENTIGRADE
WARM RECEPTORS
RECEPTORS THAT RESPONDS TO TEMPERATURES BETWEEN 10 AND 35 DEGREES CENTIGRADE
COLD RECEPTORS
RECEPTORS THAT MEASURE THE LENGTH AND RATE OF STRETCH OF MUSCLES?
MUSCLE SPINDLES
RECEPTORS THAT GAUGE THE FORCE GENERATED BY A MUSCLE BY MEASURING THE TENSION IN THE TENDONS?
GOLGI TENDON ORGANS
THE LARGER THE NERVE FIBER DIAMETER, THE ______ THE RATE OF TRANSMISSION OF THE SIGNAL
FASTER
VELOCITY OF RECEPTOR TRANSMISSION CAN BE AS FAST AS ____ M/SEC AND SLOW AS _____ M/SEC
120

0.5
WHAT TYPE OF NERVE FIBER IS MYELINATED, VARIOUS SIZES, AND FAST SPEED
SUBDIVIDED INTO (4)
TYPE A

ALPHA, BETA, GAMMA AND DELTA? GREEK LETTERS
PAGE 9
WHAT TYPE OF FIBER IS SYMPATHETIC?
TYPE C
WHAT TYPE OF FIBER IS UMYELINATED, SMALL,AND SLOW TRANSMISSION SPEED?
TYPE C
WHAT ARE THE LARGEST AND FASTEST TRANSMISSION RECEPTORS? THESE INCLUDE PROPRIOCEPTIVE NEURONS SUCH AS STRETCH RECEPTORS.
A ALPHA (GREEK)
THE SECOND LARGEST GROUP OF TRANSMISSION RECEPTORS IS CALLED? ___ IT INCLUDES ALL OF THE DISCRIMINATIVE TOUCH RECEPTORS.
A BETA (GREEK)
PAIN AND TEMPERATURE TRANSMISSION RECEPTORS INCLUDE THE THIRD AND FOURTH GROUPS WHAT ARE THEY?
A DELTA
AND C FIBERS
SEE PAGE 9
?TWO SUBTYPES OF PAIN
-FAST PAIN CARRIED BY *A DELTA* FIBERS
-SLOW PAIN CARRIED BY THE C FIBERS
WHAT IS THE TYPE OF PAIN THAT IS INSTANTANEOUS, MAKE ARM JERK BACK BEFORE YOU REALIZED YOU WERE BURNED?
FAST PAIN,
IT IS SHARP AND PIERCING AND OVER QUICKLY
IT DOES TRIGGER WITHDRAWAL REFLEXES
WHAT FIBERS ARE UNMYELINATED AND SLOW. THE ONLY SENSORY AXONS WITHOUT MYELIN. SLOW PAIN CAN GO INDEFINITELY.
C FIBERS
WHAT ARE QUALITIES OF SLOW PAIN? EXAMPLE STUBBING YOUR TOE.
MEDIATED BY TISSUE DAMAGE PEPTIDES.
CAN GO INDEFINITELY
DISTRESSING DULL AND ACHING
DOES NOT TRIGGER WITHDRAWAL REFLEXES
(PHYSIOLOGIC AND SENSORY PATHWAYS:)
WHAT IS UNIQUE ABOUT INFORMATION FROM A SOMATIC RECEPTOR?
IT DECUSSATES
WHAT DOES DECUSSATES MEAN
TO CROSS IN THE FORM OF AN X.
MOST OF THE INPUT FROM SOMATIC RECEPTORS ON ONE SIDE OF THE BODY DECUSSATES TO THE OPPOSITE SIDE OF THE CNS BEFORE_________.
ASCENDING TO THE THALAMUS
FROM THE THALAMUS, WHERE DOES SOMATIC SENSORY INFORMATION GO?
IT PROCEEDS TO THE SOMATOSENSORY (PRIMARY SENSORY CORTEX)CORTEX OF THE POSTCENTRAL GYRUS IN THE PARIETAL LOBE OF THE CEREBRUM
WHERE DOES THE SENSORY INPUT BECOMES CONSCIOUS(PERCEPTION)?
IN CORTICAL REGION (SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX OF THE POSTCENTRAL GYRUS IN THE PARIETAL LOBE OF THE CEREBRUM)

REVIEW DIAGRAM ON SENSORY PATHWAYS SPINOTHALAMIC TRACT AND POSTERIOR COLUMS p11
HOW MANY NEURONS ARE NEEDED TO GET MESSAGES FROM BODY SURFACE TO CORTEX?
A SERIES OF 3
WHAT DOES THE "FIRST ORDER NEURON" DO?
CARRIES INPUT FROM SKIN TO CNS(SPINAL CORD)
FIRST ORDER NEURON:
3 SPECIFICS
-SENSITIVE TO EXTERNAL STIMULUS(DENDRITES)
-SOMA IS IN DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA
-AXON ENTER CNS & SYNAPSES ON 2ND NEURON
SECOND ORDER NEURON:FUNCTION AND UNIQUENESS? (
-AXon oF 2ND NEURON DESSUCATES TO THE OPPOSITE SIDE OF CNS AND CARRIES INPUT UP THE CORD TO THE THALAMUS. ALSO SENDS A BRANCH TO RETICULAR FORMATION TO AROUSE US.
WHICH IS THE NEURON THAT DESSUCATES TO OPPOSITE SIDE OF CNS?
SECOND ORDER NEURON
WHAT ARE THE TWO KEY PATHWAYS THAT MEDIATE CONSCIOUS SENSATIONS?
-DORSAL COLUMN-MEDIAL LEMNISCAL PATHWAY AND
-THE ANTEROLATERAL SPINOTHALAMIC PATHWAYS.
WHAT ARE OTHER NAMES FOR THE DORSAL COLUMN-MEDIAL LEMNISCAL PATHWAY?(3)
DORSAL-LEMNISCAL
DORSAL COLUMN
POSTERIOR COLUMN
WHAT ARE OTHER NAMES FOR THE ANTEROLATERAL SPINOTHALAMIC PATHWAYS?(3)
TWO PATHWAYS
LATERAL SPINOTHALAMIC TRACTS
ANTERIOR SPINOTHALAMIC TRACTS
VENTRAL SPINOTHALAMIC TRACTS
DORSAL COLUMN MEDIATES WHAT SENSATIONS?(3)
-DESCRMININATIVE (DETAILED, FINE) TOUCH
-PROPRIOCEPTION(LIMB POSITION/MOTION SENSE)
-VIBRATION
SPINOTHALAMIC PATHWAYS MEDIATE? (3)
-PAIN
-TEMPERATURE
AND
-GROSS TOUCH
WHAT DOES DCML STAND FOR?
DORSAL COLUMN-MEDIALLEMNISCAL PATHWAY
WHAT DOES VPN STAND FOR?
VENTRAL POSTERIOR NUCLEUS
THE DCML PATH AXONS SYNAPSE ON _______OF THE THALAMUS. THE VPN THEN PROJECTS TO THE______.
VENTRAL POSTERIOR NUCLEUS(VPN)

PRIMARY SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX OR S1
THE SPINOTHALAMIC NEURONS SYNAPSE ON THE VPN(VENTRAL POSTERIOR NUCLEUS)ON WHAT SMALL AREA?
THE INTRALAMINAR NUCLEI OF THE THALAMUS
THE DORSAL ROOT AXON OF THE DORSAL COLUMN CONTAINS WHAT 3 KINDS OF FIBERS?
A ALPHA
A BETA AND
A DELTA
THE DORSAL ROOT AXON OF THE LATERAL SPINOTHALAMIC TRACT CONTAINS WHAT 2 KINDS OF FIBERS?
A DELTA AND
C
THE BIG DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE DCML AND THE SPINOTHALAMIC PATHWAY IS________.
THE LEVEL OF DOCUSATION
THE DCML PATH DOCUSSATES AT THE LEVEL OF THE _________.
THE SPINOTHALAMIC TRACT DOCUSSATES_________________.
MEDULLA

MUCH EARLIER IN THE SPINAL CORD. p14
SPINAL CORD CROSSETION DIAGRAM p15
DORSAL COLUMN IS MADE UP OF 2 FASCICULUS_______ AND _____
GRACILIS
CUNEATUS

KNOW ALSO THE TRACT OF LISSAUER(DORSOLATERAL FASCICULUS)
THE DORSAL COLUMN-MEDIAL MEMNISACAL)DCML PATHWAY ENTERS THE SPINAL CORD VIA THE DORSAL ROOT GANGLION
DORSAL ROOT GANGLION
THE DCML PATHWAY FIBERS ENTER _______ WHERE SOME SHORT DESCENDING FIBERS AE GIVEN OFF TO FORMREFLEX PATHWAYS.
IPSILATERAL
WHAT TWO TRACTS DO DCML PATHWAY USE TO IMPULSES UP THE SPINAL CORD? ALSO IDENTIFIED AS FIRST ORDER NEURON
FASCICULUS GRACILIS
FASCICULUS CUNEATIS

ALSO CALLED FIRST ORDER NEURON
DCML
FIBERS FROM THE LOWER EXTREMITIES(T7 OR BELOW)ASCENT IN THE________
FASCICULUS GRACILIS
DCML:
FIBERS FROM THE UPPER EXTREMITIES (ABOVE T7)ASCEND IN THE ___________.
FASCICULUS CUNEATIS
FIRST ORDER NEURON SENSATION TRAVEL UPWARDS ON THE IPSILATERAL SIDE OF THE SPIAL CORD BEFORE CROSSING OVER INTHE ______TO THE CONTRA-LATERAL________AND PRIMARY SENSORY_______.
BRAINSTEM
THALAMUS
CORTEX
p16
DORSAL (POSTERIOR)COLUMNS (SENSATION FORM SAME SIDE OF BODY)HAS TWO AREAS, NAME THEM?
CUNEATE FASCICULUS(DISCRIMINATE TOUCH, PROPRIOCEPTION UPPER LIM)
GRACILE FASCICULUS(DISCRIMINATE TOUCH, LOWER LIMB)
DCML PATHWAY:
____NEURONS SYNAPSE ONTO SECOND ORDER NEURONS IN THE _________ AND ________OF THE MEDULA(THE DORSAL COLUMN NUCLEI).
FIRST ORDER
NUCLEUS GRACILIS AND NUCLEUS CUNEATIS
_________FIBERS THEN DECUSSATE TO ASCEND CONTRA-LATERALLY IN THE _____AND SYNAPSE WITH THE CONTRA-LATERAL _______.
SECOND ORDER
MEDIAL LEMNISCUS
THALAMUS
THE___NEURONS ARE LOCATED INTHE VENTAL POSTEROLATERAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS, AND PROJECT THROUGH THE ____OF THE INTERNAL CAPSULE TOTHE ____ _____ IN THE POSTCENTRAL GYRUS
THIRD ORDER
POSTERIOR LIMB
SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX
INTEGRITY OF DCML PATHWAY IS ASSESSED DURING SURGICAL PROCEDURES(SPINE, CAROTID, OR CRANIAL ANEURISM)USING WHAT?

SSEP MONITORING DETECTS WHAT?
SSEP-SOMATOSENSORY EVOKED POTENTIAL

POSTERIOR(DORSAL)CORD ISCHEMIA(PRIMARY GRACILIS OR CUNEATUS TRACTS)OR BRAIN ISCHEMIA.
DAMAGE TO THE DORSAL COLUMN (DCML)PATHWAY RESULTS IN FOUR CHANGES. WHAT ARE THEY?
-LOSS OF ABILITY TO CONSCIOUSLY PERCEIVE THE POSITION AND MOVEMENT OF TEH ISPISLATERAL LIMB BELOW LEVEL OF DAMAGE.
-IMPAIRED MUSCLE CONTROL
-LOSS OF VIBRATION SENSATION
-LOSS OF DISCRIMINATORY TOUCH BELOW LESION LEVEL
(DAMAGE TO DCML)BELOW LEVEL OF LESION ON LEFT LEG (P19), THERE WILL BE LOSS OF SENSE OF ? (3)
-TOUCH
-PROPRIOCEPTION
-VIBRATION
IN THE LEFT LEG
THE ASCENDING PATHWAY IS?
THE DESCENDING PATHWAY IS?
MOTOR OR SENSORY
-SENSORY
-MOTOR
THE ASCENDING PATHWAYS FUNCTION IS TO?
CARRY SENSORY INFORMATION FROM THE BODY INTO THE SPINAL CORD AND BRAIN
THE DESCENDING PATHWAYS FUNCTION IS TO?
CONTROL MOTOR FUNCTIONS.
WHERE DO AXONS THAT FORM THE ASCENDING PATHWAYS TERMINATE?
TERMINATE ON NERVE CELLS IN THE SENSORY REGION OF THE CEREBRAL CORTEX OF THE BRAIN
THE NERVE CELL bodies THAT CONTROL MOVEMENT LIE WHERE?
THEY LIE IN THE MOTOR REGION OF THE CEREBRAL CORTEX OF THE BRAIN.
what does VPN mean?
ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus
Name three of the fast type of receptors?
smell
touch
pressure
Name three of the slow type receptors
pain
proprioception
chemoreceptors
___________is a key property of a receptor, it underlines the most importan coding mechanism, the_______________
SPECIFICITY

labeled line principle
Where do A delta and C fibers enter the dorsal cord?
dorsal root ganglion
what kind of sensation (modality) are A alpha fibers responsible for?
proprioception and stretch
what kind of sensation (modality) are A beta fibers responsible for?
discriminative touch
what kind of sensation (modality) are A delta fibers responsbile for?
pain and temperature