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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Myelination of the spinal cord becomes complete & voluntary control over excretory functions can be achieved by when?
2nd year
GI structural defects may result in
- atresia
- malposition
- nonclosure
- other abnormalities
Structural Defects of GI may involve one or more areas of the GI tract and occur when growth & development of fetal structures are interrupted during
the 1st trimester
Gastrointestinal Disorders Structural Defects
Cleft lip & cleft palate more common in ...
Native Americans & Asians than whites & less common in African-Americans
Cleft lip w or w/o cleft palate results when ...
the maxillary processes fail to fuse w/the elevations on the frontal prominence during the 6th wk of gestation
Cleft lip/cleft palate -
Fusion of upper lip is usually complete by the ? week, fusion of secondary palate occurs between _____ wks of gestation?
Intrauterine development of the hard & soft palates is completed in the
1st trimester
Congenital defects such as tracheoesophageal fistula, omphalocele, trisomy 12, & skeletal dysplasias are associated w/cleft lip & palate in ?% of cases
Most GI problems in kids produce short-term sx that interfere
w/nutrition & fluid balance only for a brief period of time
Some disorders or severe GI defects cause complications that prevent optimal ? and adequate ?
GI problems can be a product of
- congenital defects
- acquired disease
- infection
- injury
The GI system is _____ at birth
Absorption & excretion do not start until after birth because
the placenta provides nutrients & removes waste
Voluntary control over swallowing does not occur until around ? wks of age
Infants have a deficiency of several enzymes - name some
- Amylase - digests CHOH
- Lipase - enhances fat absorption
- Trypsin - catabolizes protein into polypeptides & some a.a.
Amylase, Lipase, Trypsin are usually not present until ? months
4 - 6
Liver function is immature and many processes remain immature for ?
One year
By ? yr digestive processes are fairly complete
- Stomach capacity inc to allow a 3 meals/day feeding schedule by when ?
2nd year
Incidence of cleft lip & palate has decreased since ? has been added to breads & cereals
Cleft lip usually repaired by what age?
2-3 m
Timing of repair of cleft palate depends on size & severity of cleft; most repairs are done at about
18 m
Esophageal atresia is a malformation that results from
failure of the esophagus to develop as a continuous tube during the 4th & 5th wks of gestation
In esophageal atresia the _____ fails to length, separate, & fuse into two parallel tubes (the esophagus & trachea)
Esophageal atresia & tracheoesophageal fistula - sx in the newborn include
- excessive salivation & drooling
- often with cyanosis
- often with choking
- often with coughing
- often with sneezing
- during feeding the infant returns fluid through the nose & mouth
Pyloric Stenosis
- A hypertrophic obstruction of the circular muscle o the pyloric canal
- Common (3 in 100) & most often affects 1st-born male infants
- Cause
* Unknown, but there is usu a family hx
Pyloric stenosis, results in stenosis of the
passage between the stomach & duodenum, partially obstructing the lumen of the stomach
* Lumen becomes inflamed & edematous & narrows the obstruction until the obstruction becomes complete; this is when vomiting becomes more forceful