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113 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which of these statements about the partial pressure of carbon dioxide is true
It is higher in the systemic veins than in the systemic arteries
All of these can bond with hemoglobin except
Delayed hypersensitivity is mediated by
T cells
Active immunity may be produced by
Contracting a disease
Receiving a vaccine
Which of these statements about class-2 MHC molecules is false
They are required for B cell activation by a foreign antigen
Stimulates ACTH secretion
Stimulates proliferation of killer T lymphocytes
If a person were to dive with scuba equipment to a depth of 66ft, which of these statements would be false
The oxygen content of whole blood would be three times normal
Which of these would be most affected by a decrease in the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen
Venous oxyhemoglobin saturation
If a person with normal lung function were to hyperventilate for several seconds, there would be a significant
Decrease in the arterial PC02
Erythropoietin is produced by
The kidneys
That affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen is decreased under conditions of
The bicarbonate concentration of blood would be decreased during
Metabolic acidosis
Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is carried in the from of
If the blood lacked red blood cells but the lungs were functioning normally
The arterial P02 would be normal
The maximum amount of air that can be expired after a maximum inspiration is
The vital capacity
If the transpulmonary pressure equals zero
A pneumothorax has probably occurred
The lungs cannot inflate
The lungs cannot inflate
Elastic recoil causes the lungs to collapse
The rhythmic control of breathing is produced by the activity of inspiratory and expiratory neurons in
The medulla oblongata
The chemoreceptors in the medulla are directly stimulated by
H+ in cerebrospinal fluid that is derived from blood CO2
Which of these statements about intrapulmonary pressure and intrapleural pressure is true
The intrapulmonary pressure is greater than the intrapleural pressure
Which of these statements about gamma interferon is false
It is produced by almost all cells in the body
Mast cell secretion during an immediate hypersensitivity reaction is stimulated when antigens combine with
IgE antibodies
Which of these statements about complement proteins C3 and C5 is false
They produce pores in the victim cell membrane
Which of these statements about the F portion of antibodies is true
It binds to antigens
Its amino acid sequences are variable
It consists of both H and L chains
Match the cell type with its secretion Macrophages
Lysosomal enzymes
Match the cell type with its secretion Plasma cells
During a secondary immune response
Antibodies are made quickly and in great amountsAntibody production lasts longer than in a primary responseAntibodies of the IgG class are produced
Match the cell type with its secretion Mast cells
Match the cell type with its secretion Killer T cells
Stimulates formation of T1 helper
Which of these statements about T lymphocytes is false
Some T cells produce antibodies
Which of these cell types aids the activation of T lymphocytes by antigens
Which of these offers a nonspecific defense against viral infection
Which of these occur(s) during hypoxemia
Increased ventilationIncreased production of 2,3-DPGIncreased production of erythropoietin
During exercise, which of these statements is true
The venous percent oxyhemoglobin saturation is decreased
What are the two types of the immune system
Nonspecific and specific
What are some of the protection provided by the nonspecific immune system
Phagocytosis, fever and release of interferons
What are some of the protection provided by the specific immune system
Lymphocytes specific and antigens
Innate immunity
Nonspecific Includes both external and internal defenses first line of defense
Adaptive immunity
2)mononuclear phagocyte system
3)organ-specific phagocytes
Kupffer cells
Liver, spleen and lymph nodes example of fixed organ specific phagocyte
Recruit to the site of an infection by a process called chemotaxis
Deapedesis – neurtophiles and monocytes ability to squeeze through tiny gaps to enter the connective tissues
Cells that commit suicide
What is good about fever
Fall in plasma iron, and increased activity of neutrophiles
Endogenous pyrogen
Rests body temp.
Gram negative cell release what that can cause fever
Nonspecific short acting resistance to viral infection
Molecules that stimulate the production of specific antibodies and combine specifically with antibodies produced
Antigenic determinant sites
Large antigens which can combine with many antibodies
humoral immunity
combat bacteral infection also term antibody mediaeted immunity
T lymphocytes
slow in adulthood
secondary llymphoid
lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, and peyer's patches
swelling, redness, pain, puses, heat
B lymhocytes
mast cells
create histamine
largest %, main form of antiboides
main antibody type in external secretion
responsible for allergic sympotm
big in size help IgG
how many different type of antibodies
100 million trillion
ablity of antiboides to stimulate phaogocytosis
T lymphocyetes
no antiboidees, specific immune protectionl killer, cytotoxic and t lmphocytes
perforines and granzymes
enter plasma of membrane and kill it
primary resonse
slow not always sufficent to protect person
2nd exposer fast - antigens 5- 14 last last long time
immune protection that can be produced by the transfer fo antiboides to recipeint - immediate resistance 0 short term
t cells and natural killer sells failed
natural killer
different from t lymphocytes
failure of the immune sytem to recoginze and tolerate self antigens
hashimotos thyroiditeis
antigen that does not normally ciruclate in teh blood
self antigen that is otherwise tolerated may be altered by combing wiht froign haptne
theumatoid arthritis
antiboidesi directied against toher antibodies
not streptoscoccus - cross react with self antigens
graves disease
self antigens probs t lymphocytes - type I diabetes
rheumatoid arthritis
systemic lupus erythematosurs
resiratory zone
site of fas exhange between air and blood
conduction zone
conductees air to the respiartory zone
what is the respiration
ventilation, gas exhcange, oxygen utilization
internal respiration
blood and tissure and oxygen
how many alveoli are there
300 milion
oxygen exchange
Type I alveolare cells
divides lugs from stomic
visceral pleura
covers surface of lungs
compliance, elasticity and surface tension
how much decress when inhale
Boyle's law
V1+P1 =V2 +P2
are the lungs very distensible
lung compliance
change in lung volume per change in tranpulmonary pressure
pulmonary fibroisis
decreases lung compliance
air enters teh intrapleural space
lack of suficient in infents,
redues surface tension
acute respiratory distress ysndrome
septic shock
quiet inspiration
muscle contracion; contration of diaphram
normal expiration
muscle relaxation
force contracion
accessory repiration; inspiration helped by exterinal intercostals
pulmoary ventilation
flexibel thorax; inspiration and expriation
quiet expiration
anatomical dead space
fresh air is inhaled mixed with air not all air is changed 150ml
restrictive disorders
pulomanry fibrosis; vital capacity is reduced
obstructive disorders
shortness of breath
smoking fewer but larger alveoli
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
asthma, emphaysema - 5 th leading death in US
apneustic center
promote inspiration
detects pco2, ph, p02
central chemoreceptors
medulla oblongata
peripheral chemo
aorta and cartotid ariteris
fpredominally among mediterranean , alpha