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100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
In the anatomical postition
the subject is erect with head facing forward
The appendicular region of the body refers to
the arms, hands, legs, and feet.
A midsagittal section divides the body into
equal right and left halves
The diaphragm
separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities.
Two structures that are on the same side of the body are
The cellular organelle where ATP is synthesized is the
A difference between rough and smooth ER is that
rough ER has ribosomes associated with it
Stem cells
are found in tissues that exhibit regeneration
An epithelial cell type that can tolerate stretching (as in the urinary bladder)
is called transtitional
The framework for almost every tissue is composed of
Connective tissue proper.
The two subdivisions of blood are
Plasma and formed elements
are composed of two or more tissues
The cells in the skin that are responsible for color are
Skin cells are renewed from the deepest epidermal layer, called the
Stratum germanitivum
Which statement about epidermal glands is correct?
Mammary glands are modified sweat glands
The resilient response of the skin to mechanical distortion
is attributed to the connective tissue of the dermis
Homeostasis in the human body is valuable because
It provides a regulated environment in which cells can perform their specialized functions.
Isotopes of physiologically important elements reveal that
there is turnover in the composition of all body constituents.
According to the principle of negative feedback,
detection of deviation from the set point value drives changes that minimize the deviation
Which statement does NOT describe a determinant of the rate of diffusion
the larger the concentration gradient, the slower the diffusion
the Nernst equation expresses a mathematical relationship between
Elecetrical and chemical energy
What two factors make K+ more important the Na+ in determining the resting potential?
the membrane is more permeable to K+, and the concentration gradient is higher for K+
Large, lipid insoluble molecules can cross membranes
by interacting with transport membranes
is a mechanism for removing surface receptors.
is diffusion of water from areas of higher water concentration to areas of lower water concentration
Swelling or shrinkage of cells can be avoided if
the environment of the cells is isotonic to the cytoplasm
The subatomic particle that is uncharged is the
are forms of an element that have different atomic weights
To be radioactive, an element must
Undergo a decay process, emitting high-energy particles from its nucleus.
Chemical bonds
form when electrons in the outer orbital of atoms interact
Which of the following is present in the highest concentration in the cytoplasm?
Valence is defined as
how many electrons the element can accept or donate
A polar bond results when
the electron donor and acceptor are of unequal strength
The diversity of biological compounds containing carbon is due to
it's valence is either +4 or -4
The strongest type of chemical bond is the
covalent bond
Growth, repair, and storage of energy involve what kind of process?
Anabolic processes
When a donor atom donates electrons,
it is oxidized
Hydrogen bonds
form between hydrogens bonded to nitrogen or oxygen
The energy barrier that reactants must cross to become products is called the
the activation energy
When a system that contains reactants and products is at equilibrium,
the concentrations of reactants and product remain constant.
Enzymes are
proteins that act as catalysts to promote reactions at body temperatures
The ration of the volume of the intracellular body fluid compartment to that of the extracellular compartment is about
One of the consequences of the fact that water is a polar covalent compound is that
interactions between the molecules results in surface tension
Pulmonary surfactant
reduces the surface tension in the lungs.
A one molar solution of any chemical compound contains
Avogadro's number (6.023 x 10(23)) of molecules in a liter of water.
A 1 M MgCL2 solution
has a Mg2+ concentration of 2Eq/l.
The force of gravity acting on blood held in a container
will result in the settling of the suspended RBC's
The definition of pH is
the log of the inverse of the hydrogen ion concentration (log[1/(H+)]).
When a polar covalent bond in a water molecule is broken
ions called the hydrogen ion and the hydroxyl ion are released
In our bodies, the products of metabolism
are mostly acidic
If some strong acid is added to a solution buffered with bicarbonate buffer,
some of the added H+ will react with the HCO3- preventing a large decrease in the pH
is a polysaccharide
Isomers are
molecules that have the smae chemical formula
Lactic acid that appears in the bloodstream during exercise is
metabolized to CO2 after exercise, as part of the repayment of the oxygen debt.
Unsaturated fatty acids
have one or more double bonds
In cell membranes
a bilayer is formed of two layers of amphipathic molecules
have their synthesis blocked by anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin
Amino acids
are the building blocks of proteins
Molecular chaperones
can assist in the folding of proteins
Enzymes can catalyze chemical reactions because
they bring the substrates into proper orientation with each other for bond formation
An allosteric action
is a regulatory interaction with a site on an enzyme other than its active site.
A difference between DNA and RNA is that
They have the same bases, except DNA incorporates thymidine and RNA incorporates uracil
A gene
is the code for a particular protein that is stored in the DNA sequence.
Messenger RNA is
formed in the first step of gene expression
The diploid number of chromosomes
is 46 in humans
Bone is a tissue that
is composed of living cells surrounded by compact or cancellous (spongy) mineral deosits
A long bone, such as a leg bone,
grows during development in the region called an epiphyseal plate
Bone growth is affected by
growth factors called somatomedins that are produced in response to growth hormoen
bones that continue to grow throughout adulthood include
flat bones of the face
what statement about hormonal control over bone growth is correct?
a defect in growth hormone secretion results in one form of dwarfism.
is decalcification of the bone
Externally, bones are described by features that relate to their shape and functions. Which statement is correct?
A head is the proximal, expanded end of a long bone.
As a child matures, the sutures of the cranial bones become more and more
Circumduction is a term that describes what sort of movement?
Describing a cone in space.
Supination is
rotation of the arm so that the palm faces anteriorly
A bone that partly encloses the pituitary gland is
the sella turcia
The soft spot of a baby's head are called
the anterior fontanel and the posterior fontanel.
The intervertebral discs
are in contact with the vertebrae's centrum.
The vertebrae
are fused in the sacrum
The true ribs
are connected to the sternum by costal cartilages
the body or centrum of the vertebrae
is kidney shaped in the lumbar region.
Comparing the pelvic girdle with the pectoral girdle, which statement is true?
the ilium, ischium, and pubis are fused bones in the pelvic girdle
The origin of the biceps muscle is
the coracoid process
the head of the humerus articulates with
the glenoid cavity of the scapula
The "leg" is properly defined as
the part of the lower limb from the knee to the ankle
the tarsals
include the talus, calcaneus, navicular, and three cuneiform bones.
The muscle type that is characterized by small cells and no striations is
Muscle cells or fibers are each wrapped in connective tissue called the
the more movable attachment of a muscle is called its
Bundles of muscle cells called fascicles
form a strap or spindle if they run parallel within a muscle
The classes of lever action typically exhibited by muscles and bones include
third class, in which the load is moved rapidly but with a mechanical disadvantage
The neurotransmitter that is released at the neuromuscular junction is
The types of muscle that sarcomeres are
skeletal and cardiac muscle
When a motor neuron is excited,
all the muscle fibers serve by that motor neuron are activated
The difference between isotonic and isometric contractions is that
in an isometric contraction, the muscle is not allowed to shorten
In sarcomeres,
access to actin binding sites is controlled by tropomyosin and troponin.
In muscle contraction,
crossbridges form between myosin heads and actin binding sites.
In excitation contraction coupling,
Ca++ is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in response to the action potential
The voltage sensors of the T-tubular endfeet
regulate the Ca++ release channels
Crossbridge cycling continues
as long as Ca++ is present