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86 Cards in this Set

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Whenever an electrically charged object is accelereated, it produces _____________.
electromagnetic radiation
electromagnetic radiation
a wave of energy that travels at the speed of light
light
can behave as a wave or as a particle. amplitude relates to brightness
magnetic field is_________
perpendicular to the electric field. always perpedicular to the direction of the wave
the shorter the wave lenght_________
the higher the frequency
the longer the wave lenght_______
the lower the frequency
gama rays
highest energy
at the top of the spectrum
smallest wave lenght
used to destroy canerous cells
x-rays
less energy
can go through skin but not bone
breaks bons between atoms
UV rays
can change DNA
just above the visible light
causes skin cancer
Infrared
less energy than visible light
heat radiation
emmitted by all warm objects
microwaves
short radio waves
radiowaves
the longest wave lenght
less energy
visible light
the smallest part of the spectrum, white light-all colors of light. The color of light that is not absorbed
cones
helps animals depict color
rods
helps pick up light
When light hits an object______
1. absorbed or reflected
2. absorbed and re-emmitted at a lower wave lenght
3. excites electrons
transmission
electromagnetic waves pass right through matter. The wave may be slowed down. the direction of the wave may be changed
absorption
the electromagnetic wave soaks up the matter, then converts into heat
scattering
electromagnetic wave is absorbed and then re-emmitted.
diffuse scattering
scattered back in all directions
reflection scattering
the waves are re-emmitted at the same angle as the orignal wave
atom
the smallest piece of matter, smallest part of an element that can still be identified as an element
element
matter consisting of all the smae kind of atoms, can't be broken down
molecule
two or more atoms which are bonded together.
Medelyve
came up with the first periodic table, calssified all elements by their chemical properties
Lavoisier
founder of modern chemistry, cames up with the law of conservation of matter
The law of conservation of matter
any kind of chemical reaction, the sum of the mass of the reactions equals the sum of the mass of the products
Dalton
came up with the first atomic model, The billiard ball model, thought of atoms as little balls, all atoms of the same element have the same unique mass and the same unique property
J.J Thomson
said Dalton was wrong about the atoms being hard and indestructable, atoms could be broken down, discovered electrons
Rutherford
discovered two types of radio active decay, alphaparticles and beta, #protons=#electrons
alphaparticles
heavy positive charge, go through paper, foil, clothing
beta
light, negitive charge
Planck
radiant energy comes in discreat amounts or packets, thought of quantam
Quantam theory
the study of motion that comes in small packets
Bohr
took physics and combined it with light and came up with his own atom model
orbital model
The shell or orbital model
the nuecleaus is small and compact, the orbits of the electrons are circular
spectroscopy
what gives fireworks their color
de Broglie
particles of matter have wave properties
K orbit
2 electrons
L orbit
8 electrons
M orbit
1-8 electrons
N orbit
1-18 electrons
quantam leap
when an electron goes from one orbit to another
quanta
small bundle of light
Enienstein
used Plancks concept to explain the energy of electrons. the energy of the electrons depends on the frequency of radiation
Heisenberg
came up with the uncertaninty principle, it's impossible to pin point the loctation of an electron at any time. came up with probability
probability
the probability of an electron being at a specific spot at anytime
Who came up with the periodic table?
Medelyve and Myer
the periodic table
if you take all the elements starting with the least mass to those with the most mass, you will see reaccuring chemical and physical properties
Mosley
came up with the modern periodic table, discovered that identitiy of the elements are a function of their atomic number
atomic mass
the # of protons and the # of neutrons
What are the properties of the periodic table?
medals
non-medals
semi-conductors
noble gases
medals
conduct heat and electricity
ductile: they can be drawn out into a thin wire
malable: they can be hammered into thin sheets
non-medals
poor conductors of heat and energy
not ductile or malable
gases
semi-conductors
semi conduct
sometimes conduct electric current
sometimes act as an insulator
noble gases
gases at ordinary temps
unreactive: they don't react with anything
halogens
all highly reactive non-medals
have a color and are toxic
reactivity
how likely are they to form chemical bonds with the other elements
chemical bonds
the sharing or exchange of electrons in the outter most shell of the atoms
valence electrons
in the outter shell, chemical bond in the attraction between atoms produced by the transfer or sharing of electrons
types of chemicals bonds
ionic
covalent
metallic
ionic
electron transfer, 1 atom donates an electron, the other atom accepts the electron
covalent
electrons are shared
single covalent bonds
one pair of electrons is shared between the atoms
non-polar
no charge, sharing equally
polar
electrons shared unequally
saturated covalent bonds
a molecule having only single covalent bonds
unsaturated covalent bonds
a molecule having double or triple covalent bonds
metallic bonds
the valence electrons are shared by all atoms as a whole, the electrons are lose and free to move
alloy
2 or more elements combined by metallic bonds
chemical attractions
van der walls forces
hydrogen
van der walls forces
a non specific attractive force
exists between any 2 atoms or molecules
hydrogen
form between an atom that is covalently bonded to oxygen or Nitrogen and some other atom which tends to have a negitive charge
chemical reactions
oxidation
precipitation
poly
depoly
oxidation
reduction, loss of an electron and gain of an electron
precipitation
solution, the water evaporates, solids are left and water is added
poly
many parts, linking many small molecules together
depoly
breaking down a complex molecule into smaller molecules
properties of materials
strenght
chemical
physical
electrical
magnetic
strenght
the ability of a solid to resist changes in chape as directly relatedto the size of a force, it can generate when an outside force is applied to it
types of strenght
compressive: the ability to withstand crushing
tensile: the ability to withstand pulling apart
sheer: ability to withstand twisting
composite materials
2 or more materials combined
physical
a characteristic that can be observed without changing the identity of the matter, a change in size, shape, or state
chemical
traits or characteristics that depend on the reaction of the material to form other materials (burning)
electrical
all due to the atoms, electrons, and how they are bonded. Any material capable of carrying an electric current. the electrons have to be able to flow freely
magnetic
weather or not the material has a magnetic field