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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Purpose and side-effects of Inderal
Beta-Blocker. Used medically for hypertension, migraines, and essential tremor. Psychiatrists rx for anxiety.

Side Effects: bradychardia, depression, fatigue, sexual dysfunction, hypotension
Best rating system for reducing rater bias?
Forced Choice: rater chooses between two items that appear equally favorable but actually distinguish good from poor performers.
Heritability of Intelligence:
MZ Twins reared together: .88
MZ Twins Reared apart:.75
Siblings reared together:.49
Siblings reared apart:.46
Court-Ordered Evaluations for minors. What guidelines apply?
Informed consent not necessary (for adult or child). However, always describe purpose, methods, and intended use of eval anyway.
Patterson family model for aggression: what type of parenting is found in kids who are most aggressive:
overly harsh physical punishment applied inconsistently (often not connected to child's behavior). Child's aggressive behavior is often reinforced via attention / approval
Assessing perceptual abilities in infants: what and when can various dependent measurements be used?
Sucking: 1-4 months
Reaching: 12 weeks +
Heartrate: any age
Head Turning: 5.5 months +
Eigenvalues are:
In factor (principle component) analysis: amount of variance in all tests accounted for by a factor.
Sue et al (1991) on ethnic matching found:
Ethnic matching has different effects for different ethnic groups. Specifically, Asian- and Mexican-American clients have better outcomes and less premature termination than AA clients when matched to a therapist from their group.
Test construction: what is the "floor" of a test, and how is it impacted by adding more easy to moderately-easy items to a difficult test?
Floor: lowest scores on a test - adequate when people are discriminated at the low end. Increasing the floor makes for more discrimination. Adding easier items increases the floor.
What is the underlying dimension tracked by the Minority Identity Development Model?
Bonus: what are the stages?
Levels of acculturation: stages represent different attitudes towards minority's own and the majority's culture.

Bonus: conformity, dissonance, resistance and immersion, introspection, synergetic articulation
Which identity status are minority adolescents more likely to be in than White adolescents?
Foreclosure: acceptance of identity without giving it much thought.
Common criteria for all personality disorders?
Impaired functioning or significant distress
Social facilitation (at least in ants) is primarily a product of?
Increased arousal (it can improve or decrease performance depending on the situation.)
Key differences between adolescent and childhood onset Conduct Disorder:
1. Symptom severity (childhood onset associated with more severe aggression) and 2. Prognosis (childhood onset more likely to engage in antisocial behaviors in adolescence and adulthood)
What's most important in defending against malpractice charges?
What ethical/legal issue is cited by psychologists as being encountered most frequently at work?
Confidentiality - when to breach it
Which type of Dementia is most common among those over the age of 65?
Alzheimers - increases with increasing age. About 20% of people over age 85 have the d/o.
Which is better: Brainstorming alone or brainstorming in a group?
Brainstorming alone.
What is Apraxia?
Inability to carry out goal-directed complex movement that is not direct result of paralysis, intellectual deterioration, or sensory loss.
What does an MRI show in a person in the early stages (even before sx appear) of Huntington's?
Decreased volume of basal ganglia (and other areas)
Two factors according to Beck that characterize suicidal individuals:
High degree of hopelessness and poor problem solving skills
Describe memory loss patterns resulting from ECT
Memory problems are largely reversible, though autobiographical memory loss may persist for months. Bilateral ECT is worse in terms of verbal memory loss. Right-Hemisphere ECT still results in non-verbal memory loss (though verbal memory is kept, even improved!)
Describe two decision-making models
1. Rational-Economic: consider every option and choose the best one.
2. Administrative: consider a subset of alternatives and choose the best among subset ("satisficing")
Define triangulation according to Bowen
Two family members reduce conflict between them by refocusing their attention on a third (triangulated) member.
Studies have shown that children with LD's are at higher risk for which disorders as adults?
ADHD, ODD, CD, Maj Dep
What is the strongest determinant of sastisfaction with one's leader at work?
Level of consideration (relationship-orientation, participative decision making, person-oriented) vs. Instrumentality (task orientation) - goal focused, etc) Note: instrumentality and consideration are independent dimensions (i.e. you can be high on both)
Which deficits are associated with left and right hemispheric brain damage, respectively?
Left: speech-language deficits and slow-cautious behavioral style
Right: spatial-perceptual deficits and quick-impulsive behavior style
Describe research on the relationship between age and psychotherapy outcome?
Early research found no differences, or slight superiority for children. Weisz et al found better outcomes for adolescents than children, esp for girls seeing professional counselors (vs. paraprof). Note Weisz didn't compare children and adolescent vs. adults. Others have noted adults do better.
What is "functional value" acording to Bandura?
A behavior that the person anticipates will result in desireable consequences (e.g. it will serve a function)
Which defense mechanisms are used by people with Narcissistic Personality D/o, according to Millon?
Repression (1st choice), then rationalization and projection.
How would malnutrition in third trimester affect brain development?
Interferes with development of new neurons and formation of connections between them (dendritic growth).
Which division of the nervous system does biofeedback target when it is used to help lower tension and arousal and increase relaxation?
Parasympathetic NS
Describe Hypoglycemia in terms of the psychiatric sx it mirrors?
In Acute phase, it looks like Panic Disorder (anxiety, panic). In Chronic phase, these are replaced with depression, psychosis, and /or personality change
Describe similarities between Kohlberg and Piaget theories of moral development:
Cognitive-Developmental perspective; importance of peer interaction; invariance of stages; universality (at least in early stages). Note: Kohlberg noted some cultural variation in nature and rate of moral development in the higher stages.
Describe the difference between values and ethics?
Values are judgments of right and wrong. Ethics are standards of practice set by the profession. Values often inform ethics. For example, privacy is a value that informs ethics pertaining to confidentiality.
When are environmental factors most influential on the course of bipolar disorders?
Early in the course - esp. initial episodes. Subsequent episodes are less triggered by environmental stressors
What are the food restrictions for someone taking MAOI's?
Avoid foods with tyramine (for risk of hypotensive reaction). Includes: beer & wine, aged cheeses, smoked meats, beef/chicken liver, orange pulp, packaged soups, yeast vitamin supplements.
What is "self-disclosure reciprocity"?
In group therapy, the fact that members are more likely to self-disclose when someone else has opened-up before them.
When is it best to raise racial issues in the course of therapy between a White therapist and AA client?
Raise issues in early stages of therapy
Within the hypothalamus, what two structures are related to circadian rhythms?
Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and Pineal gland.
What is the male/female ratio and avg/range of age of onset for stuttering?
Onset typically betw 2 and 7, peaking at age 5.
Rarely after 10 (2%)
According to humanistic perspective, what causes psychopathology?
Defenses / Defensive distortions (i.e. blocks to awareness, conditions of self-worth) interfere with one's own natural tendency towards personal growth (self-actualization)
Define Enmeshed and Disengaged families:
Enmeshed families: boundaries are overly diffuse, members are close and dependent
Disengaged families: boundaries are overly rigid, members are isolated from each other, conflict is avoided
Discriminant and Convergent validity are types of which kind of validity?
Construct Validity
Define the "behavioral contrast effect"
If two operant behaviors are being reinforced and reinforcement for one of the behaviors is removed, the other behavior will increase (the reinforcement gains value in its scarcity). The non-reinforced behavior will decrease (operant extinction)q
Regarding tardive dyskinesia:
a. at what point after tx onset are you at risk for TD?
b. At what age are risks for TD significantly higher?
c. Which is more common: TD or Parkinsonian sx?
a. TD is a "delayed effect" - no earlier than 6 months into tx
b. 50 y.o.
c. TD is more common - esp for Thorazine
What is the most important criterion for initial attraction between 2 people who have just met?
Physical attractiveness
In making up a test battery for job selection, predictive validity is maximized when:
a. Each test is correlated with the criterion
b. Correlations between the tests are as low as possible (pref closest to 0)
What do Adaptive Behavior Scales actually measure?
Competencies - i.e. what person actually does in his/her natural environment.
What does APA-approval of an organization to sponsor a CE program mean in terms of APA's evaluation of that program?
Nothing. APA only approves of overall Sponsorship. It does not approve of, endorse, or sanction any particular CE program. That remains the responsibility of the organization that sponsors it
How do obese people differ from others in regulating their eating behavior (based on Schachter's research)?
They rely more on external cues than internal cues