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59 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
any of the extralegal committees that directed the revolutionary movement and carried on the functions of government at the local level in the period between the breakdown of royal authority and the establishment of regular governments
Committee of Safety
Special companies of militia formed in Massachusetts and elsewhere beginning in later 1774.
Minute Men
Plan whereby Parliament would "forebear" taxation of Americans in colonies whose assemblies imposed taxes considered satisfactory by the british government
Conciliatory Proposition
The first two battles of the American Revolution which resulted in a total of 273 British soldiers dead, wounded, and missing and nearly one hundred Americans dead, wounded, and missing
Battles of Lexington and Concord
Petition adopted by the Second Continental Congress as a last effort of peace that avowed America's loyal liberty to George III and requested that he protect them from further aggressions
Olive Branch Petition
The document by which the Second Continental Congress announced and justified its decision to renounce the colonies' allegiance to the British government
Declaration of Independence
The belief that government is established by human beings to protect certain rights--such as life, liberty, and property--that are theirs by natural, divinely sanctioned law and that when government protects these rights, people are obliged to obey it
Contract theory of government
A complex changing body of ideas, values, and assumptions, closely related to country ideology, that influenced American political behavior during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
the regular or professional army authorized by the second continental congress and commanded by the general george washington
continental army
area of Pennsylvania approximately 20 miles northwest of philedelphia where General George Washington's Continental troops were quartered from December 1777 to June 1778 while British forces occupied Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War
Valley Forge
Treaties signed in 1783 by Great Britain the United States, France, Spain, and the Neverlands that ended the Revolutionary War
Peace of Paris
The right to vote in a political election
Political philosophy that maintains that individuals have an inherent right, found in nature and preceding any government or written law, to life and liberty
Natural rights
Written document setting up the loose confederation of states that that comprised the first national government of the United States
Articles of Confederation
Group of leaders in the 1780s who spearheaded the drive to replace the Articles of Confederation with a stronger central government
An armed movement of debt-ridden farmers in wesern Massachusetts in the winter of 1786-1787. The rebellion created a crisis atmosphere
Shay's Rebellion
Act passed by Congress under the Articles of Confederation that created the grid system of surveys by which all subsequent public land was made available for sale
Land Ordinance of 1785
Legislation that prohibited slavery in the Northwest Territories and provided the model for the incorporation of future territories into the union as co-equal states
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Legislation passed by Congress that set up a government with no prohibition in slavery in U.S. territory south of the Ohio River
Southwest Ordinance of 1790
Conference of state delegates at Annapolis, Maryland, that issued a call in September 1786 for a convention to meet at Philadelphia to consider fundamental changes
Annapolis Convention
Convention that met in Philadelphia in 1787 and drafted the Constitution of the United States
Constitutional Convention
The written document providing for a new central government of the US
Constitution of the United States
Proposal calling for a national legislature in which the states would be represented according to poplulation
Virginia Plan
Proposal of the New Jersey delegation for a strengthened national governement in which all states would have an equal representation in a unicameral legislature
New Jersey Plan
Plan proposed at the 1787 Constitutional Convention for creating a national bicameral legislature in which all states would be equally represented in the Senate and proportionally represented in the House
Great Compromise
A power implied in the constitution that gives federal courts the right to review and determine the constitutionality of acts passed by Congress and state legislature
Judicial Review
The sharing of powers between the national government and the states
Supporters of the Constitution who favored its ratification
Opponents of the Constitution in the debate over its ratification
Supreme Court decision of 1803 that created the precedent of judicial review by ruling as unconstitutional part of the Judiciary Act of 1789
Marbury vs. Madison
Attack in 1807 by the British ship Leopard on the American ship Chesapeake in American territorial waters
Chesapeake Incident
Act passed by Congress in 1807 prohibiting American ships from leaving for any foreign port
Embargo Act of 1807
Movement calling for the political and cultural unification of Indian tribes in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries
Pan-Indian resistance movement
Members of Congress, predominantly from the South and West, who aggressively pushed for a war against Britain after their election in 1810
War Hawks
War fought between the United States and Britain from June 1812 to January 1815 largely over British restrictions on American shipping
War of 1812
American naval victory on Lake Erie in September 1813 in the War of 1812 that denied the British strategic control over the Great Lakes
Battle of Put-in-Bay
Treaty signed in December 1814 between the United States and Britain that ended the War of 1812
Treaty of Ghent
Decisive American War of 1812 victory over British troops in January 1815 that ended any British hopes of gaining control of the lower Mississippi River Valley
Battle of New Orleans
The period from 1817 to 1823 in which the disappearance of the Federalists enabled the Republicans to govern in a spirit of seemingly nonpartisan harmony
Era of good feelings
A national bank chartered by Congress in 1816 with extensive regulatory powers over currency and credit
Second Bank of The United States
Supreme Court decision of 1810 that overturned a state law by ruling that it violated a legal contract
Fletcher v. Peck
Supreme Court decision of 1819 that prohibited states from interfering with the privileges granted to a private corporation
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
Treaty of 1817 between the US and Britian that effectively demilitarized the Great Lakes by sharply limiting the number of ships each power could station on them
Rush-Bagot Agreement
Series of agreements reached in the British-American conventions of 1818 that fixed the western boundary between the US and Canada allowed for joint occupation of Oregon and restored American fishing rights
Anglo-American Accords
Treaty between the United States and Spain in which Spain ceded Florida to the United States, surrendered all claims to the Pacific Northwest and agreed to a boundary between the Louisiana Purchase territory and the Spanish Southwest
Trans-Continental Treaty of 1819
Sectional compromise in Congress in 1820 that admitted Missouri to the Union as a slave state and Maine as a free state and prohibited slavery in the northern Louisiana Purchase territory
Missouri Compromise
The program of government subsidies favored by Henry Clay and his followers to promote American economic growth and protect domestic manufacturers from foreign competition
American System
Series of religious revivals in the first of the nineteenth century characterized by great emotionalism in large public meetings
Second Great Awakening
Public party formed in 1820s under the leadership of Andrew Jackson: favored states' rights and a limited role for the federal government
Democratic Party
The tightly disciplined state political machine built by Martin Van Buren in New York
Albany Regency
The awarding of government jobs to party loyalists
Spoils system
President Andrew Jackson's measure that allowed state officials to override federal protection of Native Americans
Indian Removal Act
The forced march in 1838 of the Cherokee Indians from their homelands in Georgia to the Indian territory in the West
Trail of Tears
Short 1832 war in which federal troops and Illinois militia units defeated the Sauk and Fox Indians led by Black Hawk
Black Hawk's War
Political Party, in opposition to the Jacksonian Democrats that favored a strong role for the national government for a promoting economic growth
Whig party
Proclamation issued by president Andrew Jackson in 1836 stipulating that only gold or silver could be used as payment for public land
Specie Circular
The national two-party competition between Democrats and Whigs from the 1830s through the early 1850s
Second Party System
Third pary formed in 1827 in opposition to the presumed power and influence of the Masonic order
Treaty signed by US and Britain that settled a boundary dispute between Maine and Canada
Webster-Ashburton Treaty