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61 Cards in this Set

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Heat
the quantity of kinetic energy contained in an object. Can be transfered from one body to another. Measured in calories. 1 calorie is the amount of heat required to raise 1 gram of room temp water 1 degree celcius.
Temperature
measures the hotness of coldness of an object. It's how fast the atoms are moving in the object. not transferable. measured in 3 scale: F, C, K
Absolute 0
the coldest temperature at which it is possible to extract energy from atoms
Specific heat
how much heat energy is absorbed by the material
thermal conductor
the substance with the ability to transer heat energy from one molecule to the next by conduction
heat transfer
the process in which heat moves from one place to another
3 mechanisms of heat transfer
conduction
convection
radiation
conduction
the movement of heat by atomic collision. a way to transfer heat when to bodies are in contact
convection
the movement of heat by a physical motion
radiation
the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves. every object in the universe radiates heat energy and recieves heat energy.
evaporation
loss of heat from the surface of a liquid
Homeostasis
a constant internal enviorment. organisms can regulate their energy with the enviorment.
ectotherm
animals that warm their bodies by absorbing heat from their surroundings
endotherm
animals that maintain a constant internal temp through metabolism
Thermo regulation
changing metabolic rate
adjusting rate of heat exchange
evaporation
behavioral responses
Torpor
metabolism decreases so circulation decreases.
2 types of torpor
hibernation- long periods of time
diurnation- short periods of time
phases of matter
gas
liquid
solid
gas
collection of atoms or molecules that expand to take shape and fill the volume of a container
liquid
collection of atoms that have no fixed shape but maintain a fixed volume
solid
collection of atoms that have a fixed shape and a fixed volume
phase changes
a transition from one phase to another
2nd law of thermodynamics
heat energy and heat transfer. deals with quality. in all energy exchanges or conversions, if no energy enters or leaves the system under study, the potentail energy of the final state will always be less than the potentail energy of the inital state.
parts of the 2nd law of thermodynamics
entroy: a measure of the disorder or randomness in a system
heat will not flow spontaneously from a hot or cold body
whenever energy is transformed from one form to another, some of it is lost as heat energy
the 3rd law of thermodynamics
the zeroth law, nothing can be cooled down to absolute 0
ecosystem
the plants and animals that live in a given area along with their physical environment
waves
a traveling disturbance
transverse wave
the moving particles vibrate at right angles to the direction in which the wave travels
longitudinal wave
a wave in which individual particles move in the same direction as the wave
properties of waves
crest: highest point in the wave
trough: lowest point in the wave
cycle
one complete vibration
wave lenght
distance from one crest to the next
frequency
the number of crests that go by a given point every second
velocity
the speed of the wave crest and its direction
amplitude
the height of the wave crest above the undisturbed position
sound
the source of sound is a vibrating object
reflection
the wave strikes a boundary that is paralle to the wave
reverberation
the mixing of the orignal sound with reflection
refraction
the wave strikes the boundary at an angle
interference
when 2 waves meet. A process when they reach a single point in space at the same time.
the doppler effect
what happens to the apparent frequency of a wave when the object emitting the wave is moving
electromagnetic force
strounger than gravity
different from gravity
can attract or repel objects
electric force
the force that results from the interaction of charged bodies
Coulombs law
the force between 2 electrically charged objects is proportional to the product of their charges divided by the square of the distance between them.
electric fields
a charged object alters the space around itself
static electricity
the charge doesnt move
Friction: electrons are transfered from one object to another
Contact: something that touches a charged body
Induction: the charge is re-distrubuted but not transfered
Galavani
thought that lifes vital force was electricity
Galvanize
to apply an electrical current of charge
Volta
he felt electric charge was a chemical reaction
developed the first battery
electric current
a flowing charge
electric circuit
energy source: an electric generator
closed path: some place where the electrons can flow
a load: place where energy is going to be used
voltage
the amount of work it would take to move the charge between 2 points divided by the value of the charge
current
number of electrons that actually flow through a wire in a given amount of time
power
measured in amps, equals the voltage times current in amps
magnetic force
a force that produces a rotation
Gilbert
discovered that every magnet has 2 poles (North and South)
magnetic fields
force acting at a distance. Field lines never cross and are continuous. the closer the lines are, the stronger the magnetic force
Dynamo theory
the reason why we have magnetic fields. Sets up electro currents
Ampere
inspired to come up with a way to measure current
Orestead
Magnetism was due to electricty
Maxwell's laws
like charges repel, unlike attract (same as Coulomb)
no magnetic monopoles
magnetic by electric effects
electric by magnetic effects
predicted electro magnetic waves that would alternate the whole way.