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29 Cards in this Set
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Item analysis is a procedure used to evaluate the:

quantitative and/or qualitative properties of test, such as difficulty and discriminability of test items


Criterion contamination occurs when:

A rater knows how a ratee did on a predictor test and this knowledge affects the rating.


A test that has high validity always has...

High reliability


What is the preferred method of calculating the reliability of a test?

Alternate forms reliability  which is calculated by correlating two forms of the same test.


Shrinkage refers to:

???


For correlation coefficients, the more heterogeneous the group (i.e. the wider the variability) the _______ the coefficient will be.

Higher


Confidence intervals are used to:

estimate true scores from obtained scores


Rsquared is used as an indicator of:

how much your ability to predict is improved using the regression line


Coefficent eta is an indicator of:

the relationship between two variables that have a nonlinear relationship


Degrees of freddom is an indicator of:

the number of values that are free to vary in a statistical calculation


When conducting a factor analysis, an oblique rotation is preferred when:

the underlying traits are believed to be dependent


Adding more easy to moderatly easy items to a difficult test will...

increase the test's floor


The important mesaure of validity for the licensing exam is:

content validity


Convergent & divergent validity are types of_________ validity

Construct


In computing testretest reliability, to control for practice effects one would use:

alternative forms reliability coefficient or splithalf reliability coefficient


Kappa coefficient is used to:

Evaluate interrater reliability (low .90s is high)


Raising the cutoff on a predictor test will result in:

decreasing false positives


Items with which level of difficulty maximize discrimination amongst test takers?

.50


Ways to assess Reliability

1)TestRetest  give same test twice to same group
2)Alternate Forms  giving two equivalent forms to the same group (many consider this to be the best) 3)Internal Consistency  include splithalf (split test in 2), KuderRichardson (for T?F tests), Cronbach (multiple response) 

SpearmanBrown formula

Used to remove the artifical lowering of relaibility due to splithalf which shortens the test (& therefore lowers relaibility)


Factors affecting Reliability

1)Length  longer = more reliable
2)Homogenity  decreases reliability (except for Kuder & Cronbach) 3)Moderate difficulty  too easy or hard lowers reliability 4) 

In regards to reliability coefficient & SD, the standard error of measurment is:

Inversely related to reliability & positively related to SD


Factors affecting Validity

1)Heterogeneity of examinees  restricted range = lower scores
2)Reliability of predictor & criterion  if not reliable, not valid 3)Moderator variables  variable (like gender) that influences the relationship between 2 other variables (when present, have differential validity) 4)CrossValidation  given to another sample 

Tyoes of Rotation

Orthogonal = independent factors
Oblique = correltaed (dependent) factora 

Prinicpal Components Analysis

Reduces variables into factors like factor analysis, but differs by having only explained & error variance, & the factors are always UNCORRELATED


Cluster Analysis

A statistical procedure whereby people or items are grouped according to their similarity on measures of interest to the researcher. (Differs from FA, becasue can use nominal, ordinal levels, clusters are categories, not latent variables, & is used to develop taxonomies)


Correction for Attentuation

Formula used to estimate how much more valid a predictor test would be if it had perfect reliability


Plevel (item difficulty index) is represented in what type of scale?

Ordinal (Anastasi, 1982)


Standard Score

Express a raw scores distance from the mean in SD units (normreferenced score)
1)Zscore  1.0  one SD from mean 2)Tscore  Mean = 50, Sd = 10 3)Satnine  scores range from 19, mean = 5, SD = 2 4) Deviation IQ, Mean = 100, SD = 15 