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21 Cards in this Set

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What are the main roles of the nervous system?
The nervous system coordinates all body activities.

sensory input (internal and external)

integration and processing of sensory input

produce the proper output signal (motor output) in response to sensory input
What are glia?
Glia are neurons and supporting cells which interact to form the nervous system.
Which part of the nervous system permeates the entire body?
peripheral nervous system
What are the four structural components of the neuron?
Dendritic tree
cell body (cell soma)
axon
synaptic terminal
Where in the neuron is the action potential generated?
axon hillock
What is the role of the axon?
The axon transmits the action potential from the hillock to the synaptic terminal.
What is the role of the myelin sheath?
The myelin sheath provides electrical insulation to enable rapid action potential transmission.
What is the role of the synaptic terminal?
Each synaptic terminal transmits information to another neuron, muscle cell, or gland.
What is the part of the neuron that is specialized to transmit electrical output signals to other neurons?
synaptic terminal
What is the role of the cell body (cell soma)?
The cell body (cell soma) processes and integrates the incoming graded potentials.
Where are organelles located?
cell body
What is the dendritic tree?
The dentritic tree has a large surface area to receive incoming information from sensory cells and other neurons.
What is a graded potential?
A graded potential is an electrical signal generated by a stimulus. The size of the graded potential relates to the size of the stimulus.
What are the four essential properties of the neuron?
Perception of internal/external chemical, electrical, and physical signals.

Information integration and processing to generate proper output signal

Send output signal to a specific region for transmission

Transmit output signal to another neuron, muscle cell, or gland
What is an action potential?
An action potential (nerve impulse) is an electrical output signal generated at the hillock.

When the neuron is sufficiently stimulated, there will be a change at the axon hillock which will cause an action potential to be generated.

known as the "language of the nervous system"
What is membrane potential?
Membrane potential is the difference (voltage) that exists across the cell membranes. It provides the energy necessary to support the action potential.

The membrane potential of a resting neuron is always negative (-40 to -90 millivolts).
What regulates the opening and closing of voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels?
Change in membrane potential (voltage) regulates their opening and closing.
What is an action potential?
An action potential is an electrical output signal that is generated at the hillock.

When the neuron is sufficiently stimulated, there will be a change at the axon hillock which will cause an action potential to be generated.

known as the "language of the nervous system"
Which active transport protein generates and maintains the membrane potential?
The sodium/potassium active transport protein pump uses large quantities of ATP to form Na & K concentration gradients that establish and maintain the membrane potential.
What is depolarization?
Depolarization is the change in membrane potential that makes it more positive or less negative.
What is the purpose of the large surface area of the the dendritic tree?
The large surface area of the dendritic tree facilitates information collection by neurons.