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16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does the innate immune system provide us with?
The innate immune system provides us with resistance and does not respond differently when it encounters the same pathogen again.
What activates and regulates the acquired (adaptive) immune system?
The innate system activates and regulates the acquired (adaptive) immune system to enhance our defensive capabilities.
What do mast cells release in response to injury?
Mast cells release histamine in response to injury.
What does histamine induce?
What are macrophages?
Macrophages ("big eaters") are large phagocytic cells that ingest foreign material.
(hungry white blood cell that gobbles invading bacteria)

Their role is to phagocytose (engulf then digest)
What are phagocytes?
Phagocytes are white blood cells that patrol the blood and lymph to detect, capture, and digest foreign invaders.
What is the most common type of phagocytes?
The most common type of phagocytes are neutrophils, which are generally found in the blood stream. A pathogen is likely to first encounter a neutrophil. They account for ~70% of phagocytes.
What are pattern recognition receptors?
Pattern recognition receptors are proteins that identify pathogen-associated molecular patterns.
What are natural killer cells?
Natural killer cells are a type of white blood cell that can kill tumor cells and virus-infected cells as part of the innate immunity.

They release chemicals that lead to cell death, inhibiting further spread of the virus or cancer.
What is the complement system?
The complement system is a group of about 30 blood proteins that may amplify the inflammatory response, enhance phagocytosis, or directly lyse extracellular pathogens.
What does a red, warm, swollen, sensitive area of the skin indicate?
A red, warm, swollen, sensitive area of the skin indicates an infection and that the body is trying to neutralize the infection and repair any related damage.
How do mucous membranes relate to innate immunity?
Mucous membranes with anti-microbial properties line the surface of our internal epithelial tissues exposed to the outside world.
What does the innate immune system consist of?
mucous membranes
anti-microbial secretions
white blood cells
What is innate immunity?
Innate immunity is the defense for all animals, which consists of recognition of traits shared by broad ranges of pathogens, using a small set of receptors

rapid response

mucous membranes
What is adaptive immunity?
Adaptive immunity is the defense for vertebrates only, which consists of recognition of traits specific to particular pathogens, using a vast array of receptors

slower response

Antibodies defend against infection in body fluids.
How do exocrine glands secrete chemicals?
Exocrine glands use ducts (tubes) to secrete chemicals outside the body or into the digestive tract.