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22 Cards in this Set

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What is the hypha?
The hypha is a filament surrounded by a cell wall made of the polymer chitin.
What are the roles of chitin?
Chitin prevents the cell membrane rupture due to osmotic pressure. It allows the hypha to generate internal pressure so it can--

move
grow
penetrate host tissues or dead organic matter
What is mycelium?
Mycelium is a mass of hyphae.
How do fungi feed?
Fungi feed by absorption. Hyphae secrete digestive enzymes into their surroundings and absorb the digested molecules.
What lifestyles do feeding by absorption support?
saprophytic, pathogenic, predatory, and symbiotic
What is the basic structural unit of the fungi body plan?
hypha
How do fungi reproduce?
Many fungi reproduce asexually (via Conidia) or sexually.
How do single-cell fungi (yeast) reproduce?
Singe-cell fungi (yeast) reproduce by cell division.
How can mycelium fragments and spores be dispersed?
Mycelium fragments and spores can be dispersed by--

wind
rain splash
animals
propulsions (spores)
What is the ascocarp?
The ascocarp (sac fungi) is a fruiting body (sexual structure) that produces ascospores and facilitates their dispersal.
What is a basidiocarp?
A basidiocarp (club fungi) is a fruiting body (sexual structure) that produces basidiospores and facilitates their dispersal.
What forms can fungi and symbiotic fungi be found?
Fungi and symbiotic fungi can be decomposers, nitrogen fixers, pathogens, primary producers, or predators in ecosystems.
Which mutualistic relationship is found in most types of plants?
symbiotic partnerships
How do lichens contribute to their ecosystems?
Lichens (fungi and algae) are primary producers and some fix nitrogen.
Which pharmaceuticals are fungi sources of?
penicillin, streptomycin, and cephalosporin
What food and beverages may fungi be found?
beer, wine, and spirits (indirectly)
bread
cheeses
cured meats
soy sauce
What is the term for a human disease caused by a pathogenic fungus?
mycosis
What are some human diseases caused by fungi?
ringworm, yeast infection, jock itch, athlete's foot, valley fever
Why are fungal diseases difficult to treat?
In fungal diseases, spores are inhaled. More spores are then produced. These spores can enter the bloodstream and colonize other organs.
How do fungi reproduce asexually?
Conidia
What does the above-ground structure of fungi represent?
The above-ground structure of fungi is the sexual structure.