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41 Cards in this Set

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Reasons for using heat and cold application are:
-promote wound healing
-facilitate comfort
-knowledge and skill with application
-safety
Effects of heat application include:
-increased blood flow to the area (vasodilation)
-increases oxygen and nutrients that are getting to the area
-relaxes muscles (pain relief, decrease joint stiffness)
Heat application can reduce _____ and block ______ to the brain.
muscle spasms
transmission of painful stimuli
Therapeutic uses of heat include:
-infections
-surgical wounds
-tissue inflammation
-arthritis
-joint and muscle pain
-dysmenorrhea
-chronic pain
-phlebitis
Dysmenorrhea is...
painful menstrual cramps
_____ cannot be used within 24 hours of injury because it increases blood flow to the site which can cause bleeding in open wounds and edema.
Heat
Heat application should not be prolonged because it can cause ____ cardiac output, ____ pulse and _____ blood pressure. These together are hypovelemic shock.
increased CO
increased P
decreased BP
____ is generally used after an injury such as a sprain or strain.
Cold
Effects of cold application include:
-vasoconstriction of blood vessels
-decreased blood flow
-decreased muscle spasms
-decreased pain stimuli
-reduction in swelling
Application of ____ inhibits release of pain producing substances such as histamines.
cold
Therapeutic uses of cold include:
-dental pain (wisdom teeth removal)
-muscle spasms
-sprains and strains
-fractures
-sports injuries
-trauma
-chronic pain syndromes
Prolonged use of cold can cause _____ BP and _____ in an attempt to warm the body up which can eventually cause tissue damage.
increased
shivering
The appropriate application time for heat is _____.
20-30 minutes
The appropriate application time for cold is _____.
15 minutes
Heat applied too long can cause _____ or _____ which can lead to trapped blood and other problems.
burns
vasoconstriction
Cold applied too long can cause ______.
frost bite
Skin ____ to heat and cold which explains why the first exposure causes strong stimulation but lessens with subsequent exposures.
adapts
Assessment during the use of heat and cold should include:
-length of time applied
-body part
-skin intact (open wounds more sensitive)
-size of application (larger the are the more likely to get systemic effects)
-age (infants, children, elderly- more susceptible to temp changes)
-physical condition (certain disease processes alter patient response to temperature change.
People with _____ feel cold more profoundly than others.
metallic replacements
Examples of dry heat are:
-hot water bottles
-heat pads
-heat lamps
____ are often used for pressure ulcers especially if they are soupy because it helps dry them out.
Heat lamps
When using a heat pad the patient should not...
-lay on top of the pad
-use metal fixtures to close cover
-use it without a cover
Temperature on the heating pad should never be above ____.
105 degrees
Examples of moist heat are:
-moist compresses
-sitz baths
-warm soaks
____ are a way of applying heated water to the perineal area.
Sitz baths
_____ are a way of submerging an entire body part.
Warm soaks
Examples of dry cold application methods are:
-ice packs
-cold packs
-cooling blankets
____ are good because the mold easily to the body part.
Cold packs
_____ are used primarily to cool body temperature. ex. malignant hyperthermia
Cooling blankets
_____ cold is usually used after dental work and for headaches.
Moist
Examples of moist cold are:
-cold compresses
-alcohol or cold sponge bath
A ______ is a moist cold application often used as a comfort measure for terminal patients.
tepid sponge bath
If acute pain is present in the mouth or abdomen, avoid ____.
heat
Acute pain in the mouth could be _____.
abscess tooth
Acute pain in the abdomen could be _____.
appendicitis
If a patient has circulatory compromise, don't use ____ because it causes vasoconstriction therefore further compromising the circulatory system.
cold
Patients with sensory deficits should not use _____ applications.
heat/cold
Patients who are confused or have diabetic neuropathy should not use _____ applications.
heat or cold
Confused patients should not use heat/cold applications because...
they are not aware enough to report pain.
Patients with diabetic neuropathy should not use heat/cold applications because...
they can't feel it.
Patients with metallic implants should not use ______.
heat or cold