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40 Cards in this Set

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The best description of an anadromous fish species is:
a species that spawns in freshwaters, migrates to marine waters where it spends most of its adult life, and then returns to freshwaters to reproduce.
The Atlantic Salmon is an anadromous species
True
Less than _____% of all of the water on planet earth is continusously recycled freshwater.
.01%
Major losses of Mangrove trees have taken place on the Indus River delta of India and Pakistan because:
d. Freshwater diversions upriver from the delta have led to decreased river flow; less and less freshwater is reaching the mouth of the river and, as a result, salt water from the Arabian Sea is intruding more and more into the Mangrove ecosystem.
Rivers that are fed primarily by snowpack on mountains tend to achieve their greatest rate of flow when?
c. during the spring when snowpack and glaciers melt.
As discussed in class, recurring drought and agricultural failures in Ethiopia are thought to be caused mainly by:
deforestation in the country's western highlands.
The two chemical elements (nutrients) mostly responsible for increased growth of algae and subsequent eutrophication in coastal bays and estuaries are:
a. nitrogen and phosphorus
One of China's legendary problems is recurring flooding on major rivers which at times has killed millions of people and destroyed very important cultural artifacts. A recent flooding event on the Yangtze River is an example. Chinese scientists who studied this event and earlier flooding events have concluded that:
a. An undisturbed tree in a forest watershed is actually worth more in the long run than a tree cut down for its timber.
The tidal Thames estuary:
a. flows from Teddington weir mostly eastward to the North Sea
Since it is a tidal estuary, the Thames estuary experiences ______ tidal events (a high tide and a low tide) each day.
two
The common term "Spring salmon" relates to what species of Pacific Northwest Salmon?
Coho
Pacific Northwest Salmon are considered to be both "keystone" and "indicator" species.
True
A "catadromous" fish species is one that spawns:
in marine waters.
The "homing mechanism" of Pacific Northwest Salmon means (in actual practice) that 100% of the fish return to the stream of their birth.
False
Atlantic salmon are actually an Eastern-seaboard species of salmon.
False
Raising Atlantic salmon in Northwest fish farms is desirable because this protects native salmon habitat.
False
The silver camouflage seen in salmon species develops in what stage?
alevin
Once they are near shore (often following as much as seven years far out in ocean waters) Pacific Northwest Salmon depend mainly on _________ to reach their native spawning grounds.
sense of smell
The nutrients of Northwest Salmon, following their decomposition in native streams where they reproduced, are contributred to the aquatic food web AND to nearby forests.
True
Kokanee Salmon are found in:
Lake Whatcom
Pacific Northwest Salmon, like many other fish species, require water habitats that are cold, clean, and clear of sediments especially in their spawning habitats. Why are cold waters so significant?
Cold water holds mmore dissolved oxygen
At the time of Ann Anderson's rising concerns about the safety of drinking water in Woburn, Massachusetts, it turns out that drinking water at that time was tested for:
coliform bacteria
As mentioned in class, about 50% of all drinking water worldwide is obtained from:
wells
A "confined" aquifer is one that, in general, has a layer of ______ above it.
clay
Hanford, Wasington is a superfund site.
True
______________ of wells have been drilled in Bangladesh to provide drinking water.
millions
The reason that wells were drilled in Bangladesh was that:
River waters were grossly polluted
The construction of wells in Bangladesh was funded by:
the United Nations "UNICEF"
The unfortunate consequence of drilling wells in Bangladesh is that most of the pumped well water contains:
arsenic
The problem with well-derived drinking water in Bangladesh today is that drinking this water causes:
skin sores and cancers
In order to illustrate the scale of a pollutant in water, I explained in class that if Arntzen Hall 100 were a swimming pool filled with water, and if a couple of drops or so of a toxic substance were added to this pool of water, the resulting concentration of this pollutant would be about:
one part per billion (1ppb)
A student in our class pointed out that Alaska's Copper Creek, which is noted for its salmon runs, is frequently muddy. Seemingly, this would make this river a poor salmon habitat. In response to this question, Melissa and I pointed out that:
d. While Copper River runs muddy from time to time, the upper reaches of the River, where salmon spawn, are clear of silt.
What noted environmentalist is reported to have said, "When you dip you hand into nature you find that everything is connected to everything else."
John Muir
As a result of pollution in the River Thames and its subsequent clean-up, Atlantic salmon:
c. were among the first fish species to disappear from the River and among the last fish species to return to the River.
John Snow, the renowned physician of London and father of the science of epidemiology, discovered, during one of London's cholera epidemics, that cholera was caused by the presence of the bacteria Cholerae vibrio in drinking water.
False
The objective of John Gibb's water filter in Paisley, Scotland was to prepare potable water.
False
In German water filtration plants the "Schmutzdecke" is the sand layer which:
removes bacteria and viruses
The first use of Thomas Savery's steam engine at the start of the Industrial Revolution was:
c. to pump water from coal mines
The occurrence of an oxygen sag in a river as evidenced by an "oxygen sag curve" means that:
a. significant biological oxygen demand (BOD) exists
What was it that convinced John Snow that the handle of the Broad Street Pump in Soho, London, should be removed?
c. He studied deaths occurring in Soho and believed that it was the Broad Street Pump that was supplying contaminated water.