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107 Cards in this Set

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mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
intelligence
a general factor that according to Spearman and others underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every tast on an intelligence test
general intellegence (g)
a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing
savant syndrome
the ability to percieve, understand, manage, and use emotions
emotional intelligence
the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
creativity
a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores
intelligence test
a measure of intelligence test performance devised by binet
mental age
the widely used American revision of Binet;s original intelligence test
Stanford-benit
defined originally as the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100. now the average performance for a given age is a 100
intelligence quotient (IQ)
a test designed to predict a person's future performance
aptitude tests
a test designed to assess what a person has learned
achievement tests
the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance subtests
Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale (WAIS)
defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested standardization group
standardization
the semetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes
normal curve
the extent to which a test yeilds consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate formes of the test, or on retesting
reliability
the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to
validity
the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest
content (face) validity
the behavior that a test is designed to predict; thus the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity
criterion
the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior
predictive validity
a condition of limited mental ability, indicatied by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life, varies from mild to profound
mental retardation
a condition of retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one's genetic makeup
Down Syndrome
the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes
heritability
a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype
stereotype threat
an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
personality
in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing
free assotiation
Freud's theory of personality and theripeutic technique that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences- and the therapist's interpretations of then- released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight
psychoanalysis
according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we areunaware
unconscious
contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to freud, stives to satisfy basicsexual and aggressive drives. it operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification
id
the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. it operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain
ego
the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgement and for future aspirations
superego
the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones
psychosexual stages
according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealosy and hatred for the rival father
Oedipus complex
the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos
identification
one's sense of being male or female
gender identity
according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage in which conflicts were unresolved
fixation
in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
defence mechanisms
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defence mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness
repression
psychoanalytic defence mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated
regression
psychoanalytic defence mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings
reaction formation
psychoanalytic defence mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.
projection
defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening unconscious reactions for one's actions
rationalization
psychoanalytic defence mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet
displacement
a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics
projective test
a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
Thematic Apperception test (TAT)
the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretation of the blots
Rorschach inkblot test
according to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential
self-actualization
according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
unconditional positive regard
(1) a sense of one's identity and personal worth. (2) all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "who am i"
self-concept
a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports
trait
a questionaire(often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors. used to assess selected personality traits
personality inventory
the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI and MMPI-2)
a test developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups
empirically derived test
views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons (and their thinking) and their social context
social-cognitive perspective
the interacting influences between personality and environmental factors
reciprical determinism
our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless
personal control
the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's fate
external locus of control
the perception that one controls one's own fate
internal locus of control
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
learned helplessness
the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive
positive psychology
overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders
spotlight effect
one's feelings of high or low self worth
self-esteem
a readiness to percieve oneself favorably
self-serving bias
deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior patterns
psychological disorder
a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
the concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured.
medical model
an integrated perspective that incorperates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
bio-psycho-social perspective
the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental Disorders (4th edition), a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders
DSM-IV
psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
anxiety disorders
an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervouse system arousal.
generalized anxiety disorder
an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-song episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations
panic disorder
an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
phobia
an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts and/or actions
obsessive cumpulsive disorder (OCD)
an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
disorders in which conscious awareness becomes seperated from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
dissociative disorders
a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities.
dissociative identity disorder (DID)
psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes
mood disorders
a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
major depressive disorder
a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
mania
a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexited state of mania
bipolar disorder
a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
schizophrenia
false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
delusions
false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
hallucinations
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
personality disorders
a personality disorder in which the person exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist
antisocial personality disorder
an emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties
psychotherapy
an approach to psychotherapy that, depeding on the cleint's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy
eclectic approach
Freud's theory of personality and theraputic technique that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences-and the therapist's interpretation of them-released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight
psychoanalysis
in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
resistance
in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other sygnifacant behaviors and events in order to promote insight
interpretation
in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships
transference
a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth
client-centered therapy
empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies
active listening
therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors
behavior therapy
a behavior therapy procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors; based on classical conditioning.
counterconditioning
behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treats anxieties by exposing people to the things they fear and avoid
exposure therapies
a type of counterconditioning that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli
systematic desensitization
an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking
virtual rality exposure therapy
a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior
aversive conditioning
an operant conditioning procedure in which people can earn a token of some sort for exibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats
token economy
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
cognitive therapy
a popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy with behavior therapy
cognitive behavior therapy
therapy that treats the family as a system. views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members; attempts to guide family members toward positive relationships and improved communication
family therapy
the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior
psychopharmacology
a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
psychosurgery
a now rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. the procedure cut the nerves that connect the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain
lobotomy