Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Briefly explain James Old's research on rats and how it showed the pleasure center of the brain to play a role in addiction.
Olds implanted electrodes into the brains of rats that stimulated the nucleus accumbens when the rat pressed a paddle in its cage. They found that the rats would press the paddle to the point of exhaustion and would cross electricalled charged grids in order to get to the paddle. No matter how much they stimulated the nucleus accumbens, they were never satiated, a characteristic seen in addicts who never feel satiated from using drugs.
How does methamphetamine also dopamine levels in the brain? How does this lead to a sensation of euphoria?
Methamphetamine causes a marked increase in dopamine levels in the brain by stimulating neurons to produce extra amounts of dopamine. Normally dopamine is removed from the synapses very rapidly, but the excess produced as a result of methamphetamine use overwhelms the mechanism that removes the dopamine, so the excess results in an overwhelming sense of euphoria.
How does cocaine alter dopamine levels in the brain and how does this result in a euphoric sensation?
Cocaine alters dopamine levels by binding to and blocking the dopamine transporters responsible for removing dopamine from the synapses. Because this transporter cannot do its job, dopamine levels increase markedly in the synapse. This excess production results in an overwhelming sense of euphoria.
Explain dopamine's role in Parkinson's disease, including what part of the brain is involved.
Dopamine plays a role in coordinating motor functions. In Parkinson's disease, neurons of the substantia nigra portion of the brain begin to die. As they die, less and less dopamine is produced by those neurons in the region of the brain. This lack of dopamine prevents the neurons of the substantia nigra from communicating with other parts of the brain, resulting in loss of motor control that characterizes Parkinson's.
What is attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and how does dopamine play a role in this condition?
ADHD is a common childhood psychiatric disorder arising before the age of 7 and characterized by hyperactivity, forgetfulness, mood shigts, poor impulse control and distractability. It has been found dopamine activity is low in the brains of children with ADHD.
What drugs are used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and how do they alter brain chemistry to do so?
The frequently used drugs used in the treatment of ADHD are methlyphnidate of amphetamine. Both drugs are chosen because they both stimulate dopamine activities, although in different ways. Methlyphenidate, otherwise known as Ritalin, functions by blocking dopamine trasporters at the synapse, results in excess dopamine in the synapse. Amphetamine on other hand stimulates dopamine release by neurons in the brain.
Explain falling in love infatuation through long-term commitment in terms of brain chemistry.
The first step of falling in love occurs in the limbic system of the midbrain When going through infatuation, three neurotransmitters are produced in greater than usual amounts in this area of the brain. An increase in the activity of dopaminergic neurons results in the release of greater than usual dopamine. Another neurotransmitter that is increase is norepinephrine or noradrenalin, which causes the sweaty palms and flushed cheecks associated with falling in love. Finally, another neurotransmitter involved in the passion of love is produced, phenylethlamine. these three neurotransmitters result in a change in the communication between the limbic system and the cerebral cortex resulting in infatuation. Once the infatuation stage passes, the brain enters the long-term commitment phase of love. In this phase, the neurotransmitter oxtocin is produced in the brain and causes long-term commitment. This can be seen in the monogamous prairie voles that are very attached to their young. They have very high levels of oxytocin in comparison to the polygamous montane voles that are much less attracted to their offspring.
What is the possible role of dopamine in schizophrenia?
Dopamine is involved in schizophrenia, a serious mental disorder that is characterized by personality changes, hallucinations, and psychotic behaviors. Treatment includes Thorazine, was not known until many years later, when it was discovered that it binds to dopamine receptors and block the action of dopamine.
Methamphetamine is produced from the main ingredient in cold medicines, known as _____.
All abused substances exert their effects by mimicking, or modulating the effects of _____.
One of the worst abused substances in modern society is derived from opium and is known as ____.
The active ingredient in heroine is ____.
Indicated by cave paintings dating to 879 B.C., humans have been using _____ for many centuries.
Robert Heath discovered the pleasure center of the brain to be located in a group of neurons known as the _____ _____.
nucleus accumbans
Hans Kusterlitz discovered a natural brain chemical that has the same biological function as morphine, known as _____.
Morphine from heroine and endorphin both bind to the same type of neural _____.
Stiumlation of the pleasure center of the brain results in the release of a particular neurotransmitter konwn as _____.
The most well known function of dopamine is its production of the please that is associated with fulfillment of hunger and _____ _____.
sexual desire
The part of the brain associated with the emotional fulfillment sensation caused by dopamine is the _____ _____ ____ __ ___.
Ventral tegmental area of VTA
Drugs like methamphetamine cause neurons of the VTA to release dopamine at very _____ levels.
Cocaine results in an increase in dopamine levels in the synapses by binding to, and thus blocking the action of, dopamine _____.
Both cocaine and methamphetamine increase dopamine levels, resulting in a sense of _____.
euphoria or pleasure
When a person falls in love ultimately result from the neurotransmitter known as _____.
Phenylethlamine is a neurotransmitter involved in love and is also found in _____.
The neurological process of falling in love occurs in the part of the brain known as _____
limbic system or midbrain
The sweaty palms and flushed cheeks that accompany falling in love ultimately result from the neurotransmitter known as _____.
norepinephrine or noragrenalin
Long-term relationships are maintained by the production of a neurotransmitter konwn as _____.
Parkinson's disease results from decreased dopamine production by neurons of the _____ _____.
substantia nigra
Dopamine also plays a role in a serious mental disorder characterized by personality changes, halluncinations and psychotic behaviors, known as _____.
The pharmological treatment for schizophrenia is, a drug that blocks dopamine receptors, known as _____.
Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is caused in part by a marked ___ in dopamine levels in the brain.
A developmental disorder characterized by hyperactivity, forgetfulness, mood shifts, poor impulse controle and distractability is known as _____.
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder