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160 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
3 functions of nervous system
1. detection of stimuli (sensory)
2. Integration
3. elicit a response (motor)
Where does conduction start?
Conduction starts at dendrite or cell body, moves towards axon.
When does complete polarization occur?
When threshold is met.
Resting membrane potential
before any stimulus
RMP
-90 millivolts (mV)
Depolarization
taking away from resting state
Refractory period
resetting after each action potential
After charge returns to starting point...
potassium gates open, charge the same as polarized, ions change sides.
To return to a polarized axon
Na+/K+ pumps to return to Na+ outside and K+ inside.
3 Na+ pumped = 3 K+ pumped
Active transport
requires ATP
Reflex arc 5 steps
1. arrival of stimulus, 2. activation of a sensory neuron, 3. information processing, 4. activation of motor neuron, 5. response by effector
PNS
peripheral nervous system
CNS
central nervous system
Spinal cord
runs from foramen magnum to L2
cauda equina
means and looks like a horse's tail. Spinal cord after L2- where spinal tap occurrs, nerve endings splayed out
Spinal cord
inner=gray matter, less myolin
outer= white
Central canal (spinal cord)
hole in spinal cord, carries central spinal fluid.
Spinal nerves
peripheral, branch off spinal cord. Branch and merge, branch and merge.
Spinal nerves (how many?)
31 pair
From 31 pair, how many plexuses?
5 plexuses, serve appendages (arm and neck)
5 plexuses
2 lumbosacral
2 cervicobrachial
1 coxygeal
Ganglia
clusters of cell bodies, protective feature in PNS,
also Schwann cells
Cranial nerves
come off brain, 12 pair
PNS protective features
ganglia and schwann cells
CNS protective features
meninges, CSF and ventricles
Meninges
found around CNS structures
3 meningeal layers
1. dura mater
2. arachnoid layer
3. pia mater
Dura mater
in brain has 2 layers (periosteal and meningeal), thick, means tough mother. On spinal cord dura only.
Arachnoid layer
has spiderlike extensions that attach to pia.
Pia mater
"gentle mother", very thin, on surface of brain, helps keep ridges and grooves of brain held together.
CSF
produced by epithemal cells.
Choroid plexus
capillary bed, gives more CSF fluid, found in ventricles
Ventricles (2)
spaces, holes in brain. Movement of CSF through ventricles
CSF flow
lateral ventricles (2)→3rd ventricle (@thalamus)→cerebral aqueduct→4th ventricle (anterior to cerebellum→central canal OR around spinal cord in dura mater OR back around brain in subarachnoid space → all end up back in lateral ventricles
Meningitis
inflammation of meninges (covering around brain and spinal cord). Viral or bacterial. Symptoms- fever and/or soreness in neck.
Multiple sclerosis
inflammation of brain and spinal cord caused by autoimmune disorder, harming of myolin.
Demyolination
slower action potentials
Stroke
decrease in blood flow to brain tissue, caused by thrombosis, embalus, anurysm. No 02 = no cellular respiration.
Alzheimer's Disease
Senile dementia combined with changes in cognitive function, memory loss, decrease in neurons in cerebral cortex.
Headaches (4 types)
cluster, tension, migrane and sinus
Cluster headache
typically in males, cluster patterns, same time every day, most painful
Tension headache
muscular stress/tension buildup and pulled, most common, stress related. Helped by relaxing, massage.
Migrane headache
maybe caused by food, genetics, medicines, rest, stay out of bright light and noisy places.
Sinus headache
increased pressure or fluid or pressure in sinus
Senses (2 kinds)
general and special
General senses
sense pain, temperature, pressure, vibrations, located virtually everywhere.
Special senses
smell, taste, vision, hearing, equilibrium. Located mostly in head. Specialized organs pick up on special senses.
Olfaction
chemical based. Smell controlled by CN I.
Cranial Nerve I (CN VI)
Olfactory
Smell- pathway
Smell enters nose and is received by branches of CNI, sent back to brain by olfactory bulb and tract.
Moisture in nose
helps to stimulate nerves
Smell- memory
Smell is more closely connected to memory than sight.
Taste
Chemical, moisture helps to break down for taste, causes stimulation of neurons in taste buds.
Cranial Nerve VII (CN VII)
Facial
Cranial Nerve IX (CN IX)
Glossopharyngeal
glosso- tongue
pharyngeal- throat
Papillae
bumps on tongue- tatebuds are in some papillae
Cranial Nerve II (CN II)
vision
Cranial Nerve III (CN III)
occulomotor, movement of eye
Cranial Nerve IV (CN IV)
trochlear, movement of eye
Cranial Nerve VI (CNVI)
Abducens, movement of eye
Lacrimal apparatus (purpose)
clean and protect
Lacrimal gland
superior and lateral to each eye, produce tears
Tears
water, high concentration of electrolytes and an antibacterial
Lacrimal punctum
holes for drainage of tears
Lacrimal sac
next to nasal cavity
Nasolacrimal duct
drains into nose
Passage of tears
lacrimal gland → lacrimal punctum → lacrimal sac → nasolacrimal duct
Tunics
layers in eye
Tunica fibrosa
external- sclera "whites" of eyes
Conjunctiva
thin membrane anterior to sclera in front of eye- vascular (not part of tunica fibrosa)
Cornea
clear, avascular
Tunica vasculosa
vascular tunic, middle layer. Made up of choroid, ciliary muscle/body and iris.
Choroid
blue
ciliary muscle/body
near/far vision, produces aqueous humor
Iris
color, helps with vision, dialates and constricts pupil (opening)
Tunica nervosa
retina and opdic disk
Retina
photoreceptors, rods for black and white, cones for color
Optic disk
blind spot, where fibers from photoreceptors leave back of eye to form optic nerve (CN II)
Physiology of vision
cornea→pupil→lens→vitreous chamber→retina (photoreceptors, roda/cones)→optic chiasma→optic tracks→occipital lobe
Pupil
opens more when dark, less when light
Iris
controls the size of pupil
Distant vision
lens flattened, suspensory ligaments pulling (high tension)
Near vision
lens is rounded, ciliary muscles contracted, suspensory ligaments- low tention
Physiology of ear
Auricle/pinna→EAM→tympanic membrane→hammer→anvil→stirrup→cochlear fluid (cochlea)→organ of corti→CN VIII→temporal lobe
Cranial Nerve VIII (CN VIII)
vestibulocochler, for equilibrium and hearing
Ossicles
hammer (malleus)
anvil (incus)
stirrup (stapes)
Middle ear muscles
attach to 2 ossicles to help decrease vibrations
Stapedius muscle
attach to stapes to help decrease vibrations
Tensor tympani
tympanic membrane
Cochlea
Filled with fluid. Organ of corti inside with hair cells. Vibrations are sent to CN VIII
Equilibrium- where and 2 types
vestibule and semicircular valves
1. Static
2. Rotational
Static equilibrium
where your head is standing still
Rotational equilibrium
body and head are moving
Cerebellum
interpretation of balance
Otoliths
calcium carbonate crystals that slide over hair cells and bend them.
otoliths→hair cells→cerebellum
Semicircular ducts
with rotation, fluid rotates and causes hair cells to bend
Physiology of equilibrium
endolymph (fluid)→hair cells→CN VIII→cerebellum
Deafness (2 types)
sensorineural
conductive
Sensorineural deafness
damage to hair cells or other neural component
Conductive deafness
something wrong with conductive pathways
Otitis media
middle ear infection, middle ear filled with fluid and infection
Myopia
nearsighted. Focal point too close to lens. See things up close but not far away.
Hyperopia
farsighted. focal point too far from lens. Can see things far away, not up close.
Cataract
blurred or nontransparent cornea. From age, uv exposure, genetics. Can be transplanted easily.
Anosmia
loss of sense of smell, from allergies, infection or trauma
Endocrine system (vs. nervous system)
"hardwired" thru CNS/PNS,
control through action potentials and neurotransmitters, quick responses that last a short amount of time, specific tissue/organ
Nervous system (vs. endocrine system)
glands scattered, control through hormones/circulation system, slower responses that last longer, widespread responses (several tissues/organs)
Function of endocrine system
homeostasis or control
Chemical signals
hormones sent through the blood stream, chemicals produced in 1 place that elicit a response in another.
Receptors
receive and respond to hormones
3 receptor responses
1. alter permeability of membrane ↑ or ↓, 2. increase/activation of reactions inside cells, 3. ↑↓ activity of hormones
Release of hormones
controlled by negative feedback mechanisms
Calcitonin- how negative feedback works
↑ Ca+ in blood, thyroid gland produces calcitonin, osteoblasts activated, ↓ Ca2+ in blood - return to homeostasis (turn off production of calcitonin)
Hypothalamus
effects anterios pituitary, produces releasing or inhibiting hormones. Master control component of endocrine system
Pituitary gland
2 parts, anterior and posterior
hyperthyroidism
↑ production of thyroid hormone, ↑ metabolic rate, hyperactive personality
hypothyroidism
↓ production of thyroid hormone
hair loss, dry skin, brittle nails ↑ weight
goiter
enlarged thyroid gland
Diabetes mellitus type I
IDDM- insulin dependent, does not produce insulin or lacks receptors
Diabetes mellitus type II
NIDDM- non insulin dependent, does not need insulin injections
Giantism
growth hormone produced too much during growth period
Dwarfism
too little growth hormones during growth period
Acromegaly
after grown period, increased size of feet, hands and head grow wider thicker.
Anterior Pituitary hormones
Growth hormone (GH), Thyroid Stimulating hormone (TSH), Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), Follicle Stimulation Hormones (FSH), Lutenizing hormone (LH), Prolactin (PRL)
GH Growing hormone
Target and Functions
T: All tissues/cells
F: Promotes growth
TSH Thyroid stimulating hormone
T and F
T: Thyroid gland
F: Stimulates thyroid gland
ACTH Adrenocorticotropic hormone
T and F
T: adrenal cortex
F: stimulates adrenal cortex
FSH follicle stimulating hormone
T and F
T: ovaries, testes
F: Stimulates gonads
LH lutenizing hormone
T: Ovaries, testes
F: Stimulates gonads
PRL Prolactation
T: mamary glands
F: promotes milk production (lactation)
Posterior pituitary hormones
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), Oxytocin (OT)
Thyroid
Thyroid hormone (Ths), Calcitonin
Parathyroid hormone
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones
Cortisol, Aldosterone
Adrenal Medulla Hormones
Epinephrine
(sympathetic)
Pancreas hormones
insulin, glucagon
Testis hormone
testosterone
Ovaries hormones
estrogen, progesteron
Thymus hormone
thymosin
Pineal hormone
melatonin
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
T and F
T: Kidneys
F: promotes reabsorption of water
Oxytonin
T and F
T: Uterus, mammary glands
F: promotes contractions of uterus during childbirth, milk ejection from mammary glands
Thyroid hormones (THs)
T and F
T: All tissues/cells
F: promotes growth, increases metabolic rate, released in response to TSH
Calcitonin
T and F
T: blood/bone
F: decreases blood calcium levels (response to blood calcium level)
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
T and F
T: Bone/blood
F: Increases blood levels (response to blood calcium level)
Cortisol
T and F
T: All tissues/cells
F: active in times of stress: metabolism of carbs, proteins and lipids
Aldosterone
T and F
T: Kidney
F: Maintains electrolyte balance
Epinephrine
T and F
T: Sympathetic NS tissues
F: Increases heart rate, blood pressure
Insulin
T and F
T: All tissues/cells
F: Decreases blood sugar (in response to sugar in blood stream)
Glucagon
T and F
T: All tissues/cells
F: Increases blood sugar (in response to sugar in blood stream)
Testosterone
F
F: Development of sexual organs, maturation of sperm cells
Estrogen
F
Development of sexual organs, regulation of menses, oocyte production
Progesterone
F
F: Development of sexual organs, regulation of menstrual cycle, oocyte productions
Thymosin
T and F
T: T cells
F: active in immunity
Melatonin
F
F: Circadian rhythms/sleep cycles
Stomach (function of hormones)
hormones that promote digestion
Small intestine (function of hormones)
hormones that promote digestion
Kidneys (hormone and function)
H: erythropoietin
F: stimulates RBC production
Placenta (function of hormones)
maintain pregnancy, prepare for lactation
Tropic
has an effect on another tissue/target