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79 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
the least serious problem caused by polling/ the two most serious problems?
bandwagon effect/ illusion of central tendency and illusion of saliency.
assumption that attitudes are "normally distributed"// tend toward the average or center.
illusion of central tendency
distribution on an issue like abortion, where the population is polarized: very few neutral, but many strongly agree/disagree
bimodal distribution
public opinion trait where an individual holds conflicting attitudes about an issue
in polling, this is the result of mixing different opinions through mechanical limits of questionaires & multi-choice responses.
artificial consensus: caused by overlooking many issues' complexities
In polling, this is created by those who think something is more important to the public than it is
illusion of saliency
3 advantages of Mail or Internet as interviewing method
cheap, no interviewer effects, question is asked exactly how the pollster wants it to be.
3 Disadvantages of Mail as interviewing method.
survey must be short, pollster is not certain of who is filling out the poll, and Anonymity is not necessarily maintained.
3 disadvantages of in person interviews
More expensive, Interviewer must be present, less control over the interviewer
advantage of in-person interview
long surveys are possible.
3 Disadvantages of internet surveys:
1. different samples obtained based on whether the survey is on email or general internet locale

Biases-- 2. wealthy people use the internet, 3. old people don't use internet
most of the time, is there congruence or incongruence bt/w Public Opinion and Public Policy?
what causes Congruence bt/w Public Opinion & Pub. Policy
public policy follows the trends of public Opinion, b/c they want to be re-elected
T or F. There is congruece on the broader issues, such as civil liberties, free market, etc.
Give 2 examples of incongruence bt/w public opinion and policy
prayer in schools, gun control.

Prayer doesn't exist in schools, and gun control is weak.
List a major cause of incongruence bt/w Public Opinion and Pub. Policy, that leads to Public Policy following the Minority.
intense minorities typically win over passive majorities
What is the main that ensures public Policy will always tend to be congruent w/ Opinion
Electoral College; politicians are "electoral creatures"
List 3 levels of political participation:

Give an example of each:
Conventional, Unconventional, Extremely Unconventonal

voting and campaigning
Petitions or protests
The 7 Demographic factors that predict voter turnout, and give the higher turnout category of each factor.
sex; women
race; white
income; high income
region; south has least t/out because elexns are never close in the south.
Age: incr. w/ age until 75
Martial Status: Married-- more connected to the political system
Education; higher education
Why is education the most important demographic factor related to political participation?
ability to understand candidates and ability to understand procedures for getting registered.
list 4 non-Demographic factors of political participation
Closeness of campaign, Other political races happening simultaniously (so already at the polls), Party contacting, and Registration
T or F. The closer the campaign, the higher the turnout. Why?
True because people feel that their vote actually counts. Also, more info is made about candidates in close races.
what's the most important non-demographic factor of political participation.
the voting problem of incomplete information/ of choosing alternatives w/o knowing fully the details of available options.
Adverse Selection
problem in elections caused by 'hidden action.' Principals don't know all aspects of the axns taken by an agent.
moral hazard; exists because agents cannot be easily monitored in their behavior
turnout has been increasing since the start of the 20th century. T or F.
False. Decreasing!
When were registration requirements instated and how did they affect turnout? Why?
In the early 20th century; Registration requirements decr. turnout b/c voting fraud was eliminated and b/c the ballot was not secret
What is the electoral format intro'd in the 1890's where all candidates for any given office were listed on the ballot? how did this affect turnout?
Australian ballot. Voter turnout increased because it was a "Secret Ballot"
ballot where each party had it's own ballot, and one would have to vote for one party only; also, this ballot revealed what party you voted for.
partisan ballot.
what introduced split-ticket voting to American politics?
Australian ballot
What was the 1993 bill that intended to expand voter participation?
motor voter bill
List 3 changes in the mid 1960's that altered the way elections are conducted and also increased voter turnout
Voting Rights act 1965
1. eliminated literacy tests and
2. established nat'l registrars; registering @ the nat'e registrar would prevent discrimination b/c this happened at the county courthouses.
3. Abolished poll taxes
Today, ID's are asked of people at polls. Some consider this a modern day ______.
Poll tax
Why did the Voting Rights Act 1965 not incr. voter turnout?

3 reasons
1. enfranchisement of 18-20 yr. olds in 1972 (broadening the spectrum causes decr.)
2. Attitude chngs- decline of political efficacy and party identification
3. Incr. marraige age; puts off political connection.
Why should turnout have gone up in the past 40 yrs? 4 reasons:
Incr. education rates, easier registration, residency requirements shortened, and institutional improvements such as VRA of 1965 have taken place.
what is political efficacy?
the belief that you matter in the scheme of things when voting
bt/w 1964-68 what happened to voter turnout in the south? for whites? for non--whites?
white turnout increased dramatically, and non-whites incr. even more dramatically
How does the US compare to other countries w/ voter turnout?
it is low: 50% for pres. elections.
3 reasons why other countries have higher turnout rates. they have...
mandatory voting laws, automatic voter registration, and less elections
list 4 proposals to incr. turnout in the US.
Move Election day to monday and make a holiday;
voting hrs longer to deter lines;
election day registration;
motor voter
The presidential electors from each state who meet in their respective state capitals after the popular election to cast ballots for pres/and vise pres.
electoral college
apportionment of voters in districts in such a way as to give unfair advantage to one political party
removal of public office by popular vote.
voting based on future performance of a candidate
prospective voting
voting based on past performance of a candidate
retrospective voting
private groups estalished by corporations, labor unions, or interest groups to raise & distribute funds for use in election campaigns
political action committee
independent spending by individuals or interest groups on a campaign issue but not directly tied to a particular candidate
issue advocacy
unregulated contributions to nat'l parties nominally to assist in party building or voter-registration efforts rather than for particular campaigns
soft money
in terms of presidential victors and policy preferences, does voter turnout matter?
define these views on voting.
1.positive apathetics
2. Elitist Argument
3. Cynics Argument
1. it doesn't matter, it's gonna be good no matter what.
2. Low turnout isn't bad, it can be a good thing!
3. It's gonna be bad no matter what, whoever wins.
what is the purpose of nat'l conventions?
unify the party, nominate the pres & vice pres., and determine the party platform and rules
What is the Party platform
describes what the party stands for.
How are delegates at the national convention chosen?
primary elections: Caucuses or primaries
diff. bt/w caucus and primaries
primaries are like gen'l election but w/in one party, and caucuses are small group meetings.
what is the maximum amount a PAC can donate to a candidate? how many candidates do thay have to fund for campaigns?
$5000 / 5
How can a candidate qualify for matching funds?
raise at least $5000 in contributions of no more than $250 in each of 20 states.
What is the max contribution an Individual canmake to a candidate in a single election?
What is the max $ of matching funds a candidate can receive in an election?
$5 million
what is the most accurate polling technique?
probability sampling
characteristics of a liberal
supports political and social reform, gov't intervention in the economy, expansion of fed'l social services, bigger efforts to help women, poor, and minorities;
and greater concern for consumers and the environment.
Conservative qualities:
support social and economic status quo,
are suspicious of efforts to intro new political formulas and economic arrangements;
believe that a large powerful gov't poses a threat to citizens' freedoms.
what is a cohesive set of beliefs that form a general philosophy about the role of the gov't?
political ideology
what is a procedural device that permit large numbers of people w/ common interests to join together uner a representative party to bring a lawsuit?
Class Action suit
2 types of judicial philosophies about how to look at the constitution to derive meaning
judicial restraint-- look only at the text
judicial activism-- look beyond the text for meaning.
who writes the opinion of a verdict once it is reached?
Chief justice// senior justice if chief isn't on the winning side.
Opinion written by a justice with the minority opinion:
dissenting opinion
written documents where attorneys use case precedents to explain why the court should rule a certain way.
decision by an appellate court, w/o a written opinion, to refuse the review of a decision made by a lower court
per curiam
what are Amicus Curiae
friends of the court. those who submit amicus briefs
This man is 3rd in status in the Justice Department. He is the top government lawyer.
solicitor general
what is the right of every citizen against arbitrary action by nat'l or state gov'ts?
due process
situation where a previous decision by a court applies as a precedent in similar cases until that decision is overruled.
stare decisis
'let the decision stand'
prior cases whose principles are used by judges for their decision in a present case
what's a plea bargain?
negotiated agreement in a criminal case where the defendent agrees to plead guilty if the court will reduce the severity of the charge.
What is the Miranda Rule?
Principles that persons under arrest must be informed of their legal rights, including their right to counsel, prior to police interrogation.
what is Writ of Certiorari?
The decision of 4 out of 9 justices to review a decision of a lower court.
What's Writ of Habeas Corpus?
Order demanding that a person in custody come to the court and shown the cause of detention.
What is the individual or organization who brings a complaint in court called?
What electoral system does America use? do most European nations use?
Plurality System// Proportional representation.