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67 Cards in this Set

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The cycles of matter we have studied so far are?
The Big Bang creates hydrogen, helium and energy

Stars form and begin creating elements up to iron

Supernova explosions create heavier elements
The cycles of matter we have studied so far are?
The Big Bang creates hydrogen, helium and energy

Stars form and begin creating elements up to iron

Supernova explosions create heavier elements

Planets form from the elements created in stars

Life arises from the chemical diversity of the elements
The Universe is 13.6 billion years old
It has been characterized thus far by:
Expansion
Cooling
“Condensation”
Transformation
This process is known as?
Timescales
The Universe will continue these processes into the far future

What about shorter scales of time, smaller scales of distance?

We associate this affect with:
A one-way street
A type of street sign
These are any periodic motion can give rise to cycles of motion and change. In it, life constantly recycles matter and energy
Cyclers and Recyclers
It goes in a circle
These are any periodic motion can give rise to cycles of motion and change. In it, life constantly recycles matter and energy
Cyclers and Recyclers
It goes in a circle
Few_____are independent of other _____

Interwoven, interdependent_____can be difficult to perceive
Cycle
Oceans (96%)
Ice caps and glaciers (3%)
Ground water (1%)
Lakes, rivers and streams (0.009%)
The atmosphere (0.001%)
Biological organisms (0.0001%)
Hydrologic cycle reservoirs
Within reservoirs
Ocean currents and atmospheric winds
Transport in aquifers

Between reservoirs
Evaporation
Rainfall
Stream and river flow
Water movement
Ocean and air currents move heat
Heat as a temperature difference
Heat as latent heat

Which means that!
Water moves energy
Evaporation changes heat energy into___________

Condensation changes_______back to heat energy
Latent heat
The opposite of manifest
Began about two million years ago

There may have been more extreme episodes in the distant past
Ice ages
Where do glaicers come from?
Began about two million years ago

(Roughly) 100,000-year intervals of glaciation caused by slightly lower global temperatures
10,000 to 15,000-year interglacial periods

There may have been more extreme episodes in the distant past
Ice ages
SO FRICKIN COLD DUDE! lol
What do ice age glaciers do?
Push the ground around, deforming the land
Depress the land
Lower the oceans
What causes ice ages?
Some uncertainty
Is it a natural resonance?
Is it a forced response?
Or is it a combination of the above?
Changes in the Earth’s orbit and tilt cause changes in the amount/distribution of solar energy
Milankovitch cycles
Forced response
The magnitude of the Earth’s______varies from 24.5 to 21.5 degrees
41,000 years
Axis tilt
This makes the seasons stronger or weaker
The roundness of the Earth changes with time100,000 years

This affects extremes of temperature
Orbit shape (eccentricity)
This is the name of Judy Jetson's high school
The direction of the Earth’s axis slowly changes23,000 years

This interacts with orbit shape and the distribution of land
Precession
“Bell” modes of change
Cycles of change with periods determined by something’s structure
Natural resonance
Energy flows at different rates between the ocean, land and atmosphere

These interactions can cause selected cycle periods to be enhanced (resonate)

Therefore the earth is a ________
Bell structure
Fresh Prince of ____ air
Ice ages cause?
Random forcing causes the Earth’s climate to resonate, producing ice ages

Milankovitch forcing controls the timing of ice ages, not the period
Plate tectonics arranged the continents to favor resonance?

Mountain position and orientation
Tropical vs. extratropical

A change in heat transport through the mantle?

At what period in time? what year
2000 B.C.
Before christ and at the time of the dinosaurs
Cycles of all time spans
Ice ages: 100,000s of years
Minor climate changes: decades to centuries
El Niño: one to three years
Seasonal changes: one year
Hurricanes: weeks
Cyclones: days
Thunderstorms: hours
Wind gusts: seconds
Atmospheric cycles
This is an average of some variable over time
Climate
_______is an actual occurrence of that variable at a particular time
Weather
Temperature
Pressure
Humidity
Cloudiness
Winds

are known as?
Basic weather variables
Cools rapidly with height above the Earth’s surface

The atmosphere is layered because of__________
Stability
Mixing
Temperature
It also states if you have a fever.
Decreases rapidly with height above the Earth’s surface

______at their centers, lowest ______ around their edges
Pressure
Fat people usually have high blood_______
Cools rapidly with height above the Earth’s surface

The atmosphere is layered because of__________
Stability
Mixing
Temperature
It also states if you have a fever.
Temperature
Pressure
Humidity
Cloudiness
Winds

are known as?
Basic weather variables
_______is an actual occurrence of that variable at a particular time
Weather
Temperature
Pressure
Humidity
Cloudiness
Winds

are known as?
Basic weather variables
Cools rapidly with height above the Earth’s surface

The atmosphere is layered because of__________
Stability
Mixing
Temperature
It also states if you have a fever.
Decreases rapidly with height above the Earth’s surface

______at their centers, lowest ______ around their edges
Pressure
Fat people usually have high blood_______
Decreases rapidly with height above the Earth’s surface

______at their centers, lowest ______ around their edges

A difference in________between two locations can cause wind

A change in_________with time at a particular location can indicate the movement of highs and lows
Pressure
Fat people usually have high blood_______
This is denoted as relative or dew point temperature
Humidity
Generally tied to humidity
Clouds are formed when air is lifted
Cloudiness
This is denoted as relative or dew point temperature
Humidity
Generally tied to humidity
Clouds are formed when air is lifted
Cloudiness
Its effects are

foggy sky promotes cooler days & warmer nights

Clear sky promotes nighttime fog
Its speed is determined by pressure forces and friction

Direction is determined by locations of highs and lows, Coriolis force
Winds
It is also one of the planetters rings on the cartoon Captain Planet
These are caused by the temperature difference between land and ocean
Sea breezes & monsoons
Driven by the uneven heating of the Earth’s surface

Broken up into three belts by the Coriolis force
Global atmospheric circulation
Polar Easterlies
Subpolar Lows
Midlatitude Westerlies
Subtropical Highs
NE Trade Winds
ITCZ
SE Trade Winds
Subtropical Highs
Midlatitude Westerlies
Subpolar Lows
Polar Easterlies


Is known as the _________of Earth
Three-cell circulation model
Small, short-lived
Tornadoes
Hail, strong winds and other nasties
Thunderstorms
Large, energetic
Draw energy from ocean through latent heat
Hurricanes
A change in the circulation of atmosphere above the equatorial pacific

Causes changes in the water temperature off the western coast of South America

Global impact?
El Niño
Solar energy (visible light) passes through the Earth’s atmosphere and is absorbed by the ground

The ground radiates infrared radiation upward

Greenhouse gases absorb some of the infrared radiation, then radiate new infrared radiation both upward and downward
Greenhouse effect
It is a possible cause for Global Warming
Energy in = Energy out
Solar energy in = the sum of all energy out
Reflection

Infrared from the surface directly to space

Infrared from the atmosphere directly to space
An equilibrium
In economics it means the input output analysis
What constitutes a change in equilibrium?
Changing “solar energy in”

Changing the amount of reflection

Changing the way the surface emits infrared radiation

Changing the way the atmosphere absorbs and emits infrared radiation
Changes the equilibrium, making it warmer

The Big Question: How much change produces how much warming?

Which constitutes changing what types of gasses
Increasing greenhouse gases
The opposite of red is?
Will it be one degree warmer?
No major economic impact

Or will it be five to ten degrees warmer?
Catastrophic effect on economy and ecology

When do we predict this happening?
50 years, half-century from now (so about the year 2054
Energy is derived primarily from fossil fuels which produce CO2

Energy consumption will increase rapidly in this century, producing enormous amounts of CO2
The fundamental problem
Changing to a new energy source would be expensive

Relying on alternative energy sources would retard development of non-industrial nations
Economic costs
It involves MONEY spending prices
What have been some options to do about this potential problem of energy shortage?
Nothing
Energy conservation
Research
New energy sources
GHG reduction strategies
Climate modification
Legislation & treaties
Processes that create, alter or modify rocks
A “rock reservoir” is called a formation
The rock cycle
This repeating patten process with rocks defines!
These rocks form from molten material

Below ground: intrusive

Above ground: volcanic or extrusive
Igneous rocks
it sound like iguana but it aint
Diverging plate boundaries

Active volcanoes

Areas with geothermal activity
Current creation locations
The process of making something is called!
Began about 1.1 billion years ago

Stopped before an ocean basin could form
Mid-continent rift
When land moves via techtonic plates what happens?
Dark red-brown basaltic rocks
Seen along Lake Superior's north shore

From massive outpouring of lava through
fractures or cracks along the rift

Gooseberry Falls State Park showcases
these lava flows
Minnesota's basalt
Similar in composition to rocks on the moon

Composed almost entirely of feldspar

Intruded into lava flows that formed during the opening of the mid-continent rift.
Minnesota's anorthosite
Where do you live and what is its geographical location?
Composed predominantly of the minerals feldspar, quartz, mica, and hornblende

Formed deep below the surface of mountain ranges
Minnesota's granite
Type of rock located in this state!
Caused by weathering of rocks

Small particles are produced and are transported by wind, water, ice
Dissolved minerals

Accumulation of this begins to fuse under pressure and possible higher temperatures

Dissolved minerals can weld particles together
Sedimentary rock
Sedimentary rocks subjected to intense pressure and high temperatures
Metamorphic rock
Think of the process of going from catterpillar to butterfly
Originally deposited as river silt

Fused into sandstone-like rock, then metamorphed
Sioux Quartzite
A type of Native American tribe as well as a city named after it in South Dakota
Quartzite is very hard, and carvings can last a long time

First carvings made around 3,000 BC
Jeffers petroglyphs
it is like this theme song: "Were movin on up, to the East Side"
Forms at high temperature and pressure

Most probably formed over 3 billion years ago

Carried to the surface by deeply-rooted volcanic action
The ultimate mineral: diamond
It is a type of ring which is very expensive