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155 Cards in this Set

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What division of the nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord?
central nervous system
What are the two division of the peripheral nervous system?
somatic and autonomic
Which division of the pns controls senses and motor movements?
somatic
Which division of the peripheral nervous system is related to automatic responses?
autonomic
What are the two divisions of the autonomic division?
sympathetic and parasympathetic
What could happen if one calls upon their sympathetic nervous system too often?
death from a psychophysiological disorder
Who thought of the idea of phrenology?
Gall
What did the idea of phrenology help to conjure?
localization of function
What are the 3 things that were discovered during the Franco-Prussian war?
1. localization
2.contralateralization
3.motor strip
What was discovered during the case of Tan and where is it located?
Broca's area, left hemisphere
What is Broca's area responsible for?
language production
What is the area responsible for understanding language?
wernicke's area
What are two areas affected by aphasia?
wernicke and broca areas
What does an EEG measure?
brain electricity
What is the type of wave that is relaxed, calm, lucid, and unthinking?
alpha
What is the hz for alpha waves?
4-8 hz
What is the wave that promotes deep relaxation and meditation, mental imagery, barely sleeping?
theta
What is the HZ of BETA waves?
14-30 hz
What are the waves that occur when you are actively processing information, awake, and alert?
beta
What are the hz of delta waves?
1-3 hz
What are the waves produced during a deep dreamless sleep?
delta
Why is giving children meds for sleepwalking not a good idea?
Slow wav sleep and bad for growth hormones
What type of waves do night terrors and sleep walking occur in?
delta
What is the band of tissue that connects the left and right hemispheres?
corpus callosum
What is the structure that relays information back and forth between the two hemispheres?
corpus callosum
What is the function of the cerebellum?
coordination of motor movement
What does alcohol impact?
physically destroys cells in the cerebellum
Where are the four lobes of the brain located?
cortex
Give locations for the four lobes of the cortex. frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital
1.frontal-in front
2.next to frontal
3.below parietal
4.very back
What is function of the frontal lobe?
planning and decision making
What lobe in the broca's area and motor strip in?
frontal
What lobe registers what is going on in the body?
parietal
What lobe contains the somatosensory strip?
parietal
What is the function of the temporal lobe?
hearing and language understanding
Where is weinke's area located?
temporal lobe
What lobe in responsible for visual processing?
occipital
What structure has all senses except smell go through it?
thalamus
What is the structure responsible for the four FS?
hypothalamus
What are the four fs of the hypothalamus?
fighting,fleeing,feeding,fornicating
What is the structure that is respnsible for memory consolidation?
hippocampus
What structure doesn't develop fully until age 2 or 3?
hippocampus
What would happen if the hippocampus is knicked for epileptical seizures and why?
There would be no ability to put short term in long term memory--because interferance with consolidation
What are the three structures involved in motor movement?
basal ganglia,cerebellum,frontal lobe
What disorder has a side effect that impairs basal ganglia?
schizophrenia
What structure operates 24 hours working with breathing, heart rate, blood pressure?
medulla
What are the receivers of a neuron?
dendrites
What make neurotransmitters?
terminal buttons
What is an increased neural conduction?
excitatory
What is a reduced neural conduction?
inhibitory
What are the two ways a neurotransmitter is removed?
deactivation-broken down
or
reuptake-
What is the NT responsible for eating disorders, depression,OCD,sleep disorders?
serotonin
What is the hormone found in turkey, peanut butter, and beans?
eltriptaphan
Name two drugs given to people who have a decreased level of serotonin and how they work.
eravil, prozac--increase serotonin levels by blocking reuptake so more serotonin is available
What NT is responsible for schizo, Parkinson's disease, movement and reward circuits, and addictions?
dopamine
What are formication hallucinations, and who has them?
delusions and auditory hallucinations-tactile,bugs crawling--schizophrenics
What is when a thought process gets derailed?
loose association
How does dopamine affect schizophrenics?
1. drugs that reduce its activity alleviates its symptoms
2.cause side effect that resembles Parkinson's disease because of reduction of neurons producing dopamine
3. L-dopa can reduce symptoms of Parkinson's disease because of blood brain barrier
What is the NT responsible for muscle movement, alzeheimer's disease, and memory?
ACH
What disease blocks ACH?
botulim
What insect bite elevates levels of ACH causing muscle spasms?
black widow spider
What did s.american indians put on their arrows to paralyze their victioms?
curare and ach
What NT is responsible for depression and powering sns activity?
norepinephrine
What drug effects norepinephrine and what are the side effects?
Elavil- gain weight
What NT inhibits neurotransmitters and anxiety?
Gaba
Name four drugs that make gaba work effectively and how?
librax,valium,xanax,librium-increase binding
What are nature's own opiates or a inner morphine?
endorphins
What does the speed of neural conduction depend on?
depends on distance
Why would a surgeon split the corpus callosum?
severe epileptic patient
What are the 4 characteristic responsibilites and 2 areas of the left hemisphere?
language,writing,science,logic,wernke and broca areas
What are the responsibilites of the right hemisphere?
music,art,fantasy,dance,facial recognition,spatial ability,geometry
When a regular person stares at a projection on a right side of screen, it goes to left side of brain, what occurs in a split brain patient?
the info is projected into the left side of brain
In the blindfold and key experiment, the patient is asked to hold the key in his right hand, what occurs?
The patient does not know how to explain what hand the key is in because the language area of the brain is in the left hemisphere.
If a patient is asked to spell mississippi what occurs in the brain?
The left hemisphere will be active and produce beta waves, while the idle right hemisphere will produce alpha waves.
What occured during the rat 'plastic' brain experiment/
A group of rats in alone a inn impoverished cage versus an enriched cage with together- the enriched rats proved to be quicker learners because their number of dendrites increased-allowing cortex to grow!
What occured during the child with epilepsy dilemma?
The choices were to let child die or take out a hemisphere. The hemisphere was taken out and the leftover brain picked up some functions of the missing brain.
What is the start-eating center that contains glucoreceptors?
hypothalamus
What is the satiety center?
hypothalamus
What is if one is 20 percent greater weight over desired?
obese
What if one is 10 percent greater weight than over desired?
overweight
How do people know if they are obese?
1. insurance tables
2.bmi
How many calories need to be eaten to gain a lb of fat?
3500 calories
What is the least amount of energy burned to keep body going?
basal metabolic rate
When are two instances that the basal metabolic rate decreases?
1. it is lower in women
2. with age
What if someone is 500 pounds or heavier?
morbidly obese
Name three ways that people deal with obesity?
lipectomy,drugs,fad diets
How does the body protect itself during dieting?
it lowers the basal metabolic rate-so burn fewer calories
What are 12 guidelines to reduce weight?
1. keep honest records
2.environment affects behavior
3.weigh twice a month
4.pre-load with salad,carrots
5.small portion for meal
6.food out of sight-out of mind
7.slow eating rate
8. Dont shop when hungry and use a list
9. dont eat family style
10. Help from family
11. Increase physical activity
12. Read food packages
What is a nervous loss of appetite?
anorexia nervousa
What do people have to weigh in order to be anorexic?
weigh 85% ot less of expected weight
What are 3 characteristics of anorexia that the victim feels?
1.intense fear of becoming fat
2. distored body image
3. perfectionist with low self esteem
How is anorexia and bulimia treated?
1. cognitive therapy
2.ssri-seritonin
What is continuous hunger?
bulimia nervousa
What is the perspective that focuses on the role of a particular physical structure or behaviour plays in helping an organism adapt to its environment over time?
evolutionary perspective
What is natural selection?
Useful characteristics that lead to an advantage in adapting to the environment have a better chance of being passed on- Darwin
What is the science that combines psychology,psychiatry,and neurology with a focus on the role of the nervous system in understanding behavior?
behavioral neuroscience
What is that hemisphere receives input from the opposite side of the body?
contralateral conduction
What are nerves that carry info to the brain and spinal cord?
afferent sensory nerves
What are nerves that carry info from the brain or spinal cord?
efferent motor nerves
What system regulates body functioning involuntarily?
autonomic nervous system
What are 4 characteristics when the sns kicks in?
dilation of pupils, HR increases, digestion slows, release of sugar
What state does the psns return the body to?
homeostasis
What nerves enter and exit the spinal cord?
enter back-sensory
exit front-motor
What are interneurons and where are they located?
CNS- connect neurons and either send info directly to a motor nerve or to the brain for further processing
What occurs when a sensory message does not have to travel all the way to the brain for processing?
reflex
What gland produces melatonin?
pineal gland
What gland is located deep in the center of the brain?
pineal gland
What hormone is important in regulating or wake and sleep cycle?
melatonin
What do melatonin levels do as we get close to our usual bed time? as daylight approaches?
1. bed time melatonin increases
2. day light melatonin decreases
What organ produces insulin?
pancreas
What What diabetes type has the pancreas that does not produce insulin?
type 1
WHAT DIABETES TYPE HAS INSULIN PRODUCED, BUT THE BODY CELLS ARE INSENSITIVE TO IT?
TYPE 2
What is an organ that is an endocrine gland and key center for survival behaviors?
hypothalamus
What signals the pituitary to release hormones?
hypothalamus
What gland is called the master gland?
the pituitary gland
What gland releases somatotropin,thyroid stimulating and acth?
pituitary gland
What hormone acts directly on bones and muscles to produce the growth spurt that accompanies puberty?
somatotropin
What secretes the thyroid stimulating hormone?
pituitary gland
What hormone causes the adrenal glands to secrete cortisol to produce glucose?
acth
What do the adrenal glands secrete to produce glucose in time of stress?
cortisol
What does the thyroid secrete?
thyroxine
What hormone regulates the body's growth and metabolic rate?
thyroxine
Undersecretion of thyroxine leading to dwarfism
hypothyroidism
What disease is characterized by protruding eyes, nervousness,hyperactivity,irritability,and a wild stare?
graves disease
What are the side effects of anabolic steroids?
shrinking testes, cessation of period, weakening of the immune system,severe depression, irritability
How will a postmenopausal woman treated with estrogen behave?
like the brain of a younger woman in reading and memory and will increase activation of brain region that stores sounds for speaking
What secretes epinephrine or norepinephrine and glucocortoids?
adrenal glands
What hormones respond to the flight or fight response with the sns?
epinephrine and norepi
What occurs when the adrenal cortex is stimulated by acth?
secretes glucocortoids that produce glucose
What system keeps the fight or flight arousal up over a longer period of time?
endocrine
What relays the neural signals from the dendrites to the axon?
soma
What stores neutrotransmitters and prior to their release, and are involved in transmitting a chemical and electrical signal from one neuron to the next?
terminal button
What are glial cells ANd what are the four functions?
cells that make ip myelin sheath and remove waste,occupy vacant space,guide neuron migration during brain devlpmnt,insulation
How many glial cells per neuron?
nine
Name two diseases related with destroyed myelin sheaths.
-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
-multiple sclerosis
What is the disease where the immune system attacks the myelin sheaths which harden into scars scleroses?
multiple sclerosis
What is the presynaptic membrane?
membrane on the side that sends the message
What is the postsynaptic membrane?
membrane on the receiving side of the message
What can happen to a signal after it reaches the dendrites of the next neuron?
1.excitation-passed on
2.inhibition-less likely to be passed on
What is the disease that results of death of neurons in the brain that release dopamine and makes it difficult to initiate motor movements?
parkinson's disease
Name something that crosses the blood-brain barrier and something that does not?
yes-alcohol
no-dopamine
What is a biulding block that certain brain neurons use to manufacture dopamine?
precursor
What happens after l-dopa crosses the bb barrier?
neurons use it to manufacture dopamine
What is deep brain stimulation?
implantable electronic device to stimulate the affected brain areas in parkinson's disease
What nt is responsible for arousal level control, motor movement, reward and punishment pathways, and addiction?
dopamine
What are three drugs that dopamine influences the addiction of and explain why.
amphetamines,cocaine,morphine- all increase the release of dopamine
What nt plays a role in depression, sleep, weight regulation,suicide,ocd, and aggression?
serotonin
Name four kinds of meds that increase serotonin levels?
celexa,prozac,paxil,and zoloft
What nt controls brain areas related to attention,learning and memory?
acetylcholine
What is the most widely distributed nt in body that keeps lines of communication between neurons open, helps learning, and engage is transmitting info?
glutamate
During the study of the small structure on the temporal lobe where sound is processed, there was a comparison of 25 ppl born deaf and 25 normal hearing ppl. What occured?
-MRI SCAN the ratio of gray to white matter was higher in deaf ppl compared to hearing controls...due to less mylenization, fewer connections among neurons, and gradual decay of unused axonal fibers-exposure to sound does change the anatomy of the brain
What is stuttering related to?
-related to abnormality in the white matter speech areas of left hemisphere-
In the stutter study- what was concluded of the men that underwent therapy?
more activation in frontal speech and language regions and temporal areas- the brain had remodeled its circuitry arond the problem
Who found that split brain allowed the two hemispheres to do different things?
Sperry and Ganzaniga
What hemisphere is involved in speech,language, logic, analytical manner?
left
What hemisphere adds emotional content to our speech,geometry,recognition,selection,all-encompassing?
right hemisphere