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157 Cards in this Set

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provides capability to plan, task, execute, monitor and assess activities of assigned/attached forces; senior C2 element of Theater Air Control System (TACS) including personnel & equipment; ensures effective conduct of Air & Space Operations (com. ops. intel, etc.)
Operations Command Center of JFACC "Falconer"
develops, refines, disseminates, and assesses progress of JFACC’s strategy; responsible for long-range planning; publishes daily Air Operations Directive providing JFACC’s guidance for each ATO to the successive planning steps
Strategy Division
- responsible for near-term (48-72 hrs) air & space ops planning; develops detailed plans for application of air resources based on JFACC-approved guidance received from Strat Division; four teams
Target Effectiveness Team/Joint Guidance, Apportionment, and Targeting Team (TET/JGAT) Team - produces JIPTL
Master Air Attack Plan (MAAP) Team - develops daily MAAP to accomplish JFACC task and objectives
ATO/ACO Production Team - Tech and Distribution of ATO, ACO and SPINS
C2 Planning Team - develops detailed C2 execution plans and data link architecture
Combat Plans Division (CPD)
- responsible for monitoring & executing current ATO; focal point for monitoring joint and combined operations such as time sensitive targeting; comprised of Offensive Operations Team, Defensive Operations Team, Meteorological Support, & Operations Support
Combat Ops Division (COD
provides ISR support to airspace planning and execution activities; provides oversight/management of JFACC ISR processes internal/external to AOC to ensure that the appropriate ISR reporting, planning, tasking, and deconfliction occur = source threat and targeting picture.
Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Division (ISRD)
plans, coordinates, tasks, and executes air mobility mission; responsible for coordinating intrathreater/intertheater airlift requirements, refueling requirements, and MEDEVAC airlift requirements
Air Mobility Division (AMD
Describe the development of the ATO within the AOC
Strat Division publishes a daily Air Ops Directive that provides guidance for each ATO to the successive planning steps; Combat Plans transmits the ATO to the Combat Ops Division for execution; COD monitors and executes current ATO; ISRD is responsible for producing reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acq ATO annex; AMD ensures air mobility missions are reflected in the ATO/ACO; ATO/ACO Production team responsible for technical production/distribution
Responsible for mission accomplishment/assessment; includes AEW/CC, staff/group commanders; focal point for wing C2, reporting and threat warnings; receive ATO from AOC in draft form and check ability to meet projected taskings
Describe the Battle Management Center
Responsible for sustainment and survivability so the mission can continue; comprised of personnel with expertise in force protection, CE, and medical; critical for handling crisis
Survival Recovery Center
threat assessment produced allowing CC to make smart decisions
contingency planning process
Phase I
well-defined task w/ specific purpose; creates essential tasks; JFC writes mission statement (defines all but the “how”)
contingency planning process
Phase I
developing assumptions (worst-case scenarios)
contingency planning process
Phase I
COA development (5 stages) defines “how” tasks are accomplished and offer viable options to accomplish mission
contingency planning process Phase II
COA submitted to CJCS/SECDEF for approval, then developed into a plan
contingency planning process Phase II
Strategic Guidance (when a need is found in JSCP); tasks are assigned to a Combatant CC (CCDR)
Phase I
Concept Development (CCDR develops CONOPS to direct planning)
Phase II
Plan Development (activities accomplished concurrently depending on time)
Phase III
Force planning where Service component CCs ID forces needed to accomplish plan
contingency planning process Phase III
Support planning ID quantity of supplies/equipment/replacement personnel to sustain
contingency planning process Phase III
/deployment planning to produce feasible movement to support CC’s COA
contingency planning process Phase III
Plan Refinement
Phase IV
OPLAN documented in Joint Ops Planning/Execution Sys (JOPES)
contingency planning process phase IV
Submitted to CJCS for final review/distro/published
contingency planning process phase IV
Situational Awareness (monitoring situation at all levels of war)
crisis action planning process
Phase I
CCDR provides assessment of crisis to POTUS/SECDEF/CJCS.
crisis action planning process
Phase I
Strategic Guidance (conducted in a compressed amount of time)
crisis action planning process
Phase II
CJCS issues WARNORD (strategic guidance) to initiate development of COAs and request for recommended COA; also IDs mission/constraints
crisis action planning process
Phase II
CCDR reviews existing COAs for modification; send CJCS estimate of situation w/recommended COA to resolve
crisis action planning process
Phase II
Concept Development
crisis action planning process
Phase III
CJCS review/recommend to POTUS/SECDEF; ALERTORD issued upon approval (does not authorize execution)
crisis action planning process
Phase III
PLANORD may be issued prior to ALERTORD by SECDEF/CJCS to initiate detailed planning
crisis action planning process
Phase III
OPORD developed by CCDR ID forces/sustainment/resources sent to POTUS
crisis action planning process
Phase III
Plan Refinement
crisis action planning process
Phase IV
CJCS issues DEPORD or EXORD to initiate execution of COA (military resolution)
crisis action planning process
Phase IV
6-24 months available to plan
Contingency Planning
hours to 12 months available to plan
Crisis Action Planning
plan for potential contingency
Contingency Planning
plan for actual crisis
Crisis Action Planning
situational awareness/planning
Contingency Planning
Crisis Action Planning
Three broad operational activities:
Situation Awareness, Planning, Execution
Four planning functions:
Strategic Guidance, Concept Development, Plan Development, Plan Refinement
Designed to achieve unity of effort; plan for series of related mil ops in given time/space; contingency & CAP planning
Campaign Plans
I am an American, fighting in the forces which guard my country and our way of life. I am prepared to give my life in their defense.
Article I Code of Conduct
I will never surrender of my own free will. If in command, I will never surrender the members of my command while they still have the means to resist.
Article II Code of Conduct
If I am captured I will continue to resist by all means available. I will make every effort to escape and to aid others to escape. I will accept neither parole nor special favors from the enemy.
Article III Code of Conduct
If I become a prisoner of war, I will keep faith with my fellow prisoners. I will give no information or take part in any action, which might be harmful to my comrades. If I am senior, I will take command, if not, I will obey the lawful orders of those appointed over me and will back them up in every way.
Article IV Code of Conduct
When questioned, should I become a prisoner of war, I am required to give my name, rank, service number, and date of birth. I will evade answering further questions to the utmost of my ability. I will make no oral or written statements disloyal to my country and it allies or harmful to their cause.
Article V Code of Conduct
I will never forget the I am an American, fighting for freedom, responsible for my actions, and dedicated to the principles which made my country free. I will trust in my God and in the United States of America.
Article VI Code of Conduct
using only necessary amount of force, and not more, to overcome the enemy
Military Necessity
Requirement to distinguish between military objectives and civilian objects
Military advantage balanced against civilian impact; avoid/minimize civilian causalities.
Limit unnecessary suffering and destruction; unlawful weapons: poison, glass bullets, personnel landmines
Waging war IAW well-established formalities; permits lawful ruses (camo, false radio signals, mock troop movements); forbids treacherous acts (misuse of symbols, false surrender)
authorized by govt/LOAC to engage in hostilities; member of regular or irregular armed force; commanded by someone; marked with recognizable distinctive emblems (uniforms); must carry arms openly
Lawful combatants
participate in hostilities w/o being authorized by govt/intl law; those who violate LOAC
become lawful targets; may be killed or wounded; may be tried as war criminals
Unlawful combatants
not authorized by govt/LAOC to engage in hostilities; includes civilians accompanying forces; combatants that are out of combat; cannot be object of direct attack.
should doubt exist as to whether an individual is lawful, noncombatant, or unlawful combatant, such person shall be extended protections of Geneva POW Convention until status is determined; tribunal to determine
Undetermined status
selecting targets to produce physical and psychological consequences in order to achieve an objective; actions taken with the intent to produce a distinctive desired effect
Effects-based targeting
Characteristics, capabilities, or localities, from which a military force derives its freedom of action, physical strength or will to fight
Center of Gravity (COG)
Describe each of Col (ret) Warden’s Five Rings
Leadership – enemy command structure
Organic essentials – needed for maintenance (electricity, petroleum)
Infrastructure – transportation system (rail, air, highways bridges, ports)
Population – people of the nation
Fielded Military Forces – means to an end to protect inner rings
Four components of the Dr. Strange Model
Centers of Gravity (CG)
Critical Capabilities (CC)
Critical Requierment (CR)
Critical Vulnerabilities (CV)
Centers of Gravity (CG)
moral/physical strength, power, and resistance centers; leaders, bases, military forces (nouns)
Critical Capabilities (CC)
make the CG function; gather intelligence, maneuver, attack, project (verbs)
Critical Requierment (CR)
essential conditions, resources and means for a CC to operate fully; money, fuel, information, communication links (nouns or verbs)
Critical Vulnerabilities (CV)
CRs (or their components) that when attack would achieve effects based results, they are the target sets we attack; communication sets, POL facilities (nouns or verbs)
Nodal Analysis
technique used to model a system, breaking the system into its component parts (nodes); determine how a system works in order to best pick which targets and how much power to drop on them
Key concepts contained in FM 100-20
Land and air power co-equal and interdependent forces; air weapons useful tool to help army gain tactical objectives; airmen see as strategic weapon; success only if airpower was centralized and controlled by the air commander;; strategic air operations should strike “vital centers”; gain and maintain air superiority; isolate battlefield through “Air Interdiction”; “Close Air Support”; flexibility is airpower’s greatest asset
How FM 100-20 influenced today’s air and space power doctrine
gain & maintain Air Superiority of Theater; Air Interdiction - isolate battlefield by preventing the movement of hostile troops & supplies; CAS - destruction of selected objectives in battle area, in the immediate front of friendly ground forces
Why the United States intervened in the Persian Gulf following Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait
Kuwait friendly to west and an important economic center of gravity (10% of world oil); sovereign territory invaded
key members of the US-led coalition developed after Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait
Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Britain, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, and United Arab Emirates (not Israel)
national objectives set forth by National Security Directive 54
Immediate, complete and unconditional withdrawal of all Iraqi forces from Kuwait; restore Kuwait’s government; protection of American citizens abroad; promotion of the security and stability of the Persian Gulf
major innovations of INSTANT THUNDER
Focus on targeting centers of gravity to obtain strategic paralysis (instead of field forces in Kuwait); A JFACC in control of all Air Assets (Centralized Control, Decentralized Execution); no gradual escalation
transformation of INSTANT THUNDER plan into the phased air campaign plan for Operation DESERT STORM
Instant Thunder was kept but named offensive campaign phase I of four phase attack; four phases: strategic air campaign in Iraq, air campaign against Iraqi forces in Kuwait, neutralize rep guard/prepare Kuwaiti battlefield, ground attack to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait; Lt Gen Horner decided against allowing the Pentagon to plan a campaign for them
operational elements that contributed to success in Operation DESERT STORM
Targeting Science
key historical events within the Persian Gulf region and their impact on Operation DESERT STORM
Iraq shot skuds against Israel to try to get them involved but US patriots launched to intercept; Sadam ordered Iraqi III Corps to take Khafji; US used Leavy air attacks on Iraqi forces to support the Marines; proved unprotected ground troops vulnerable to air attack
impact of coalition warfare on our ability to conduct air and space operations
Large coalition caused increased complexity in air ops; targets had to be approved by numerous intl govts
how OAF illustrated the existence of limits to the flexibility of air and space power
Needed boots on ground for better intel
coalition hit multiple targets but failed to disrupt Serbian forces until it attacks vital COGs
similarities and differences between the role and employment of air and space power in Operations ALLIED FORCE and DESERT STORM
Allied Force - air forces were the supported commander (no ground troops)
Desert Storm - worked parallel w/ ground troops (supporting)
reasons for US involvement in OEF
September 11; Afghanistan base of operations for Bin Laden/Al Qaeda training; Taliban refused to give up Bin Laden
national objectives for OEF
Destroy al-Qaeda’s grip on Afghanistan
destroy al-Qaeda terrorist training camps
help people of Afghanistan recover from the Taliban’s reign of terror
help Afghans put aside long-standing differences to form a new interim government that represents all Afghans – including women
operational objectives for OEF
Make clear to the Taliban leaders and their supporters that harboring terrorists is unacceptable and carries a price; acquire intelligence to facilitate future operations against al Qaeda and the Taliban regime that harbors the terrorists; develop relationships with groups in Afghanistan opposing Taliban regime and the foreign terrorists that they support; alter military balance by denying Taliban offensive systems that hamper the progress of opposition forces; provide humanitarian relief to Afghans suffering truly oppressive living conditions under the Taliban regime; make it increasingly difficult for the terrorists to use Afghanistan freely as a base of operation
contextual elements taken into account for OEF
Public Opinion
operational elements employed in OEF
Targeting Scienc
reasons why the US engaged in OIF
Iraqi non-compliance with UN Resolution 687/688/Iraqi no-fly resolution violations
objectives of OIF
A stable Iraq
destabilize, isolate, and overthrow Iraqi regime and provide support to new, broad-based govt
destroy WMD capability and infrastructure, free individuals unjustly detained
Air Force Doctrine at the beginning of OIF
Operation DESERT STORM example; employment of OCA and DCA; employment of Strategic Attack
effects of contextual elements on the employment of airpower doctrine in OIF
Personal ties within Chain of Command (Bush/Cheney legacy)
distinctive capabilities
used in OIF
Air & Space Superiority
Information Superiority
Rapid Global Mobility
Global Attack
Agile Combat Support
Precision Engagement
characteristics of SOF
Careful selection process
composed of mature and experienced personnel,
regionally oriented
different types of missions SOF may conduct
SO Principal Missions

Special Ops Collateral Activities
SO Principal Missions (nine)
Direct Action (DA); Special Reconnaissance (SR); Foreign Internal Defense (FID); Unconventional Warfare; Combating Terrorism (CBT); Psychological Operations; Civil Affairs; Counterproliferation (CP) of WMD; Information Ops
Special Ops Collateral Activities
Coalition Support; CSAR; Counterdrug (CD); Countermine (CM); Foreign Humanitarian Assistance (FHA); Security Assistance (SA)
Joint Air Operation Plan Development
a 6-phase process in which the Joint Forces Air Component Commander (JFACC) and his/her staff consider the Joint Force Commander's (JFC) mission and objectives, determine the best coarse of action for the joint air effort, and detail how that course of action will be conducted in order to accomplish the JFC's overall objectives
purpose of the Joint Air Estimate Process
to develop a Joint Air Operations Plan, which outlines the strategy that will be used to integrate and coordinate the air operations of joint force components.
Phases of the Joint Air Estimate Process
1. Mission Analysis
2. Situation and Course Of Action (COA) Development
3. COA Analysis
4. COA Comparison
5. COA Selection
6. Joint Air Operations Plan (JAOP) Development
JFACC mission statement and what it includes
describes who (the JFACC) will act, what objectives will be achieved, when (timing) and where (location) the actions will take place, and why (reason)
JFACC intent (commander’s intent) and what it includes
purpose and method of the operation and how its desired end state
supports the joint campaign and follow-on operations.
JAEP Phase I (Mission Analysis)
gather enough information about the environment in which the conflict will be fought to be able to write the mission statement
JAEP Phase II (COA Development)
to refine and analyze data from the phase I and develop possible courses of action that will accomplish the JFACC mission, achieve the desired end state, and support the joint force commander's (JFC) objectives for the joint air task.
JAEP Phase III (COA Analysis)
ensure each COA is a valid option that addresses all JFC and JFACC objectives and to eliminate or alter those that do not meet these criteria.
JAEP Phase IV (COA Comparision)
compare the COAs against predetermined criteria to identify strengths, weaknesses, advantages, and disadvantages of each
present a COA recommendation to the JFACC, who approves the recommendation or selects an alternative and makes any necessary adjustments before submitting it to the JFC, who determines the final COA based on air, land, and maritime requirements.
JAEP Phase V (COA Selection)
methodology of COA Analysis
achieved through wargaming, tabletop discussion, and/or "what-if" drills
methodology of COA Comparison
JFACC staff develop an objective Decision Matrix that compares each COA's ability to meet established criteria.
An alternative, but more subjective, method is and Advantages & Disadvantages Matrix
List the operational domains
Physical Domain (Air/Sea/Land/Space); Virtual Domain (Cyberspace/Info); Human Domain (Social/Moral)
mission/role of the US Army
Mission - support & defend the Constitution
Role - serve as decisive component of land war; fight & win nation’s war but also deter/conduct peacetime activities
Army Corps
largest tactical unit in the Army(Lt Gen)
Army Division
basic unit of maneuver at tactical level(Maj Gen)
Army Brigade
basic warfighting unit in a division(Col)
Army Battalion
lowest echelon at which firepower/maneuver/intel/support are combined under a single commander(Lt Col)
Army’s view of airpower
Provide CAS and Interdiction; use airpower for increased mobility; ISR; own the air defense artillery
four types of Marine Air-Ground Task Forces
Marine Expeditionary Force
Marine Expeditionary Brigade
Marine Expeditionary Unit (SpecOps capable)
Special Purpose MAGTF
Marine Expeditionary Force
largest warfighting echelon (20-90K Marines); exists in peacetime & wartime(Lt Gen)
Marine Expeditionary Brigade
premier response force for small-scale contingencies (up to 20K Marines); able to rapidly deploy for full range of ops(Brig Gen)
Marine Expeditionary Unit
)-“first-on-the-scene” force; execute NEO and other ROMO ops(Col)
Special Purpose MAGTF
task organized, trained, equipped for variety of ops (specific missions/humanitarian/crisis response/regional exercises); example: SPMAGTF Somalia
USMC perspective on airpower
CAS & deep air support; antiair, assault support, air recon
concept of maneuver as the Marine’s war fighting philosophy
Single campaign w/ air/land/seas aspects
engage from position of advantage; Expeditionary Maneuver Warfare-securing strategic landscape/beyond amphibious ops
missionof the US Navy
maintain, train and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of seas
role of the Navy
protect external frontiers, strategic deterrence, power projection, sea control, sealift
Navy’s Type commands
responsible for admin/training/readiness of naval forces; Air (COMNAVAIRLANT), Surface (COMNAVSURFLANT), Submarine (COMSUBLANT)
Navy’s Operational commands
Operational Commands-numbered fleets w/ specific AOR
Navy’s view of airpower
Primarily for fleet defense; CAS for Seals & Marines; performs offensive ops by themselves or jointly; enables rapid mobility w/ aircraft carriers and ability of sea or land-based ops
levels of Enlisted Force Development
Chief Leadership Course
requirements of the Air Force Training Program comprising Enlisted Force Development
1 basic training/ AB
3 tech school/ AB
5 OJT/CDCs/ E-1 - E-4
7 NCO Acad advanced tech school SSgt - MSgt
9 Experience / SMSgt CMSgt
Enlisted Evaluation System functions
Performance Focussed
how EPRs affect promotions
1/4 of the points from EPR go to total points in weighted points promo system
purpose of the enlisted force structure
specific responsibilities for each rank, their relationship, how each fits in organization
three tiers of the Enlisted Force Structure
Airmen AB - Sra
NCO SSgt - TSgt
ISR Intelligence
- information and knowledge gathered about an adversary obtained through observation, investigation, analysis, understanding
systematic observation of aerospace, surface, subsurface of areas, places, persons, things by visual, aural, electronic, photographic or other means
mission undertaken to obtain, by visual observation or other detection methods, information about activities and resources of an enemy, or to secure data concerning the characteristics of an area
Imagery Intelligence (IMINT)
derived from photography, infrared sensors, lasers (images)
Signals Intelligence (SIGINT)
intercepted electronic emissions on capabilities, intentions, formations, locations
Measurement and Signature Intelligence (MASINT)
analysis of data derived from technical sensors for purpose of identifying distinctive features associated with the target
Human Resources Intelligence (HUMINT)
use people for insight into enemy plans, intentions, research, capabilities
Open-Source Intelligence (OSINT)
uses information of intelligence value that is available to the public
AF ISR principles
Unity of Effort
ISR Integration
close relationship btwn ISR process and strategy, planning, and execution functions
ISR Accuracy
reliability requires corroboration and analysis of all information
ISR Relevance
suitability of information and format
ISR Timeliness
available in time to plan and execute
ISR Fusion
fused info from multiple sources
ISR Accessibility
easily retrievable, appropriate clearance, lowest possible classification
ISR Security
protect classified info and sensitive sources
ISR Survivability/Sustainability/Deployability
redundancy, protection/maintain duration/rugged, small, imm connectivity
ISR Unity of Effort
minimize duplication, maximize sharing
ISR Interoperability
wide variety of users
AF ISR Process seven steps
ISR Planning
with current/anticipated threats, necessary tactics, weather/ geographics
ISR Tasking
J-2 task at strategic level, COMAFFOR ISR managers task at theater level (peacetime – scheduling messages, wartime/contingency – ATO)
ISR Collecting
accomplish assigned ISR mission, evaluating risks
ISR Analyzing
converting info into finished intel
ISR Disseminating
giving user info (electronic, hardcopy, imagery, reports, briefs)
ISR Evaluating
feedback on product
ISR Applying
meet needs of operational mission