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90 Cards in this Set

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Two sepal-like bracts; many tepals; superior ovary;
Ten stamens; fused corolla; poricidal anther dehiscence;
urn-shaped flowers
Inferior ovary; stem succulents; axillary buds called areoles
Many stamens; five fused carpels; free petals; compound
leaves with stipules
Ten stamens (nine fused to each other); zygomorphic symmetry; lower 2 petals fused
Opposite leaved tree; four-parted flowers; nectary disk at base of stamens
Four nutlets as fruit; corolla with corona; actinomorphic
floral symmetry
Cordate leaf bases; bilateral floral symmetry; polypetalous, with lower petal forming a spur
Stellate hairs; 5-parted flowers; free petals; capsular
Dioecious trees; alternate leaves; no perianth; hairy
Versatile anthers; 4-parted flowers; inferior ovary;
Epipetalous stamens; radial symmetry; capitate style;
3-parted flowers; sheathing leaf bases; 3-winged achenes
Polypetalous; opposite leaves, swollen nodes; anthocyanin pigments
Fused corolla; helicoid cyme; deeply divided style;
capsular fruit
Briefly describe the difference between chasmogamous and cleistogamous flowers. Then give one advantage and one disadvantage of each type of flower.
Chasmogamous flowers open and are generally cross-pollinated while cleistogamous flowers never open and are self-pollinated and self-fertilized.

Advantage: Ensures seed set
Disadvantage: Can lead to inbreeding depression

Advantage: Reduces inbreeding depression
Disadvantage: Less likely to be fertilized
What is there about the biology of plants in the Fabaceae that make them good colonizers and also make good ‘citizens’ by helping prepare the way for other plants?
Fabaceae grow well in nutrient-poor soil which makes them good colonizers. They associate with nitrogen-fixing bacteria which makes them good "citizens" by making that nitrogen available to other plants.
Monadelphous stamens vs. diadelphous stamens
Monadelphous stamens are stamens fused at their filaments into a single group.

Diadelphous stamens are fused at their filaments to form 2 groups.
Alkaloids vs. betalains
Alkaloids are secondary compounds derived from amino acids that are found in many families.

Betalains are nitrogen-based pigments found only in the Caryophyllales but not the Caryophyllaceae.
Trinucleate pollen vs. tricolpate pollen
Trinucleate pollen: has 3 nucleii

Tricopate pollen: pollen grain with 3, long, grooved openings.
Drupe vs. berry
Drupe: Indehiscent (not opening) fleshy fruit with hard pit in center consisting of a bony endocarp surrounding a seed or seeds.

Berry: Indehiscent fleshy fruit with 1 to many seeds.
What is the term for the form of asexual reproduction in which a seed develops
without fertilization?

Describe how this can occur in a plant.

What are the consequences for the genetic variation in a population or species if this
is the only form of reproduction?

Embryo sac develops without meiosis. Egg is already diploid. Egg produces seed directly. In many cases pollination is required but pollen is inviable. Sometimes egg sac aborts and cell in ovule wall forms embryo.

Essentially an evolutionary dead-end. Only form of genetic variation would be mutation which is to slow to adapt to changing environments in practically all instances.
Plant robs fungi of nutrients. These plants are dependent on fungi for part or all of nutrients.
Fruits derived from a 2-carpellate gynoecium in which the 2 halves of the fruit split away from a persistent partition
Dry fruit breaking into 1-seeded segments
short hair, bristle, or spine having a barbed tip
Free central placentation
Ovules attached to a freestanding column or central axis in middle of unilocular ovary.
Which family could be combined with the Boraginaceae to form a monophyletic group?
a) Polemoniaceae
b) Brassicaceae
c) Hydrophyllaceae
d) Solanaceae
e) Onagraceae
c) Hydrophyllaceae
The following are all characters of plants in the subclass Asteridae, EXCEPT:
a) tenuinucellate ovules
b) unitegmic ovules
c) corollas usually gamopetalous (fused)
d) betalain pigments
e) iridoid secondary chemical compunds
d) betalain pigments
Which of the following traits is NOT typically associated with outcrossing flowers?
a) large showy flowers
b) high pollen to ovule ratios
c) all flowers produce mature fruits
d) self-incompatibility
e) nectar or other pollinator reward present
c) all flowers produce mature fruits
Which of the following is NOT typical of plants in the subclass Rosidae?
a) flowers polypetalous
b) two integuments surrounding the ovule
c) perianth parts arranged in whorls
d) monocolpate pollen
e) seeds with two cotyledons
d) monocolpate pollen
As you travel east from Seattle over the Cascades and down to the Columbia river basin, the average annual ____ first increases and then decreases, whereas the average
____ in July first decreases and then increases.

Edaphic factors refer to the effect of ____ on vegetation.
The Puget Sound trough and the U-shaped valleys in the Cascades are both the result of ____.
Humans have impacted vegetation of the Pacific Northwest in many ways. Briefly describe four ways that humans have altered the natural vegetation of Washington.
1. Introduced Species
2. Deforestation
3. Agriculture
4. Urbanization
3-parted flowers; Ocrea surrounding stem at base of leaf; 3- winged achenes
4 sepals; 4 petals; inferior ovary; 4 fused carpels
Cruciform petal arrangement; 6 stamens; fruit a silique
Hispid hairs on leaves; flowers in a scorpioid cyme; 2 carpels forming 4 nutlets; radial floral symmetry
Inferior ovary; many perianth parts and many stamens attached to a hypanthium; fruit a berry
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in root nodules; compound leaflet
margins entire; 10 stamens
Opposite leaves; swollen nodes; floral parts in 5; capsular
Stellate hairs on stems; actinomorphic flowers; numerous
stamens connate by their filaments; 5 fused carpels
Tough, leathery leaves; sympetalous flowers; 10 stamens;
anthers with terminal pores
Trees with opposite leaves; fruit a samaroid schizocarp;
nectary disk at base of stamens
Two sepal-like bracts; many tepals; superior ovary;
succulent leaves
Zygomorphic flowers with lower petal spurred at base and
containing staminal nectary; 5-parted perianth
Briefly describe the difference between the ‘vegetation’ of a region and the ‘flora’ or a region.
Flora refers to all plant species that occur in an area.

Vegetation is the pattern of plant distributions on the landscape
Tetradynamous stamens
4 + 2 stamen arrangement (4 long
inner and 2 short outer) in traditional Brassicaceae
Diadelphous stamens
Stamens with their filaments fused to form two groups.
Monadelphous stamens
Connate at the filaments to form a tube around the style
Why would it be beneficial for a plant to avoid self-fertilization? Under what
circumstances is self-fertilization beneficial?
Self-fertilization can lead to inbreeding depression. It is hard to adapt to changing environments.

Self-fertilization is beneficial when conditions are stable and there are no pollinators available.
large showy flowers

Selfer or outcrosser?
Outcrosser--showy flowers are used to attract pollinator.
nectaries producing lots of nectar

Selfer or outcrosser?
Outcrosser--nectaries used as "gift" to attract pollinators.
very small flowers

Selfer or outcrosser?
Selfer--Reduced because not used to attract pollinators.
all fruits mature after flowering

Selfer or outcrosser?
Self-fertilizer--more exact and reliable than
stamens and stigmas mature at the same time

Selfer or outcrosser?
Selfer--Mature at same time so can be properly fertilized. Outcrossers attempt to avoid this so as to not self-fertilize.
distyly and tristyly

How same? How different?
Distyly: 2 different style lengths.

Tristyly: 3 different style lengths.

Both outcrossing mechanisms.
protandry and protogyny

How same? How different?
Protandry - anthers dehisce and release pollen before stigma is receptive

Protogyny - stigma is receptive to pollen before anthers mature

Both strategies to avoid self-pollination.
vegetative reproduction and agamospermy

How same? How different?
Agamospermy or Apomixis - production of seeds that are genetically identical to

Cloning or vegetative reproduction- starting new plants from vegetative parts of another plant

Both are forms of asexual reproduction.
rhizomes and bulbils

How same? How different?
Both are forms of vegetative reproduction.

rhizomes – lateral underground shoots

bulbils – formed in inflorescence where flower buds become little plants
What combination of traits would be the most convincing evidence that a plant belongs to subclass
a) tenuinucellate ovules; two whorls of stamens; iridoid compounds
b) unitegmic ovules; tenuinucellate ovules; iridoid compounds
c) gamopetalous corollas; 5-parted perianth; betalain pigments
d) iridoid compounds; bitegmic ovules; epipetalous stamens
e) polypetalous flowers; two fused carpels; tenuinucellate ovules
b) unitegmic ovules; tenuinucellate ovules; iridoid compounds
The nutritive tissue for the developing seed in plants of the Caryophyllales is called
a) Endosperm
b) Betalain
c) Centrosperm
d) Perisperm
e) Sieve-tube plastid
d) Perisperm
Which of the following traits is NOT a characteristic of plants in the Cactaceae?
a) Paired bracts associated with each flower
b) Succulent stems
c) Modified leaves called glochidia
d) Axillary buds called areoles
e) Inferior ovary
a) Paired bracts associated with each flower
A flower that self-pollinates without opening is called
a) Agamospermous
b) Apomictic
c) Inferior
d) Monadelphous
e) Cleistogamous
e) Cleistogamous
Fruit a silique; cruciform petal arrangement; 2 fused carpels
Capitate style; epipetalous stamens; radial symmetry; alkaloids
Green succulent stems; inferior ovary; many perianth parts; fruit a berry
Two petals fused, others free; bilaterial symmetry; compound leaves with entire margins
5 fused carpels; stellate hairs on stems; actinomorphic, polypetalous flowers; palmate leaf venation
Tough, leathery leaves; urn-shaped flowers; 5
fused carpels
Fruit a samaroid schizocarp; trees with opposite leaves; palmate leaf venation
Superior ovary; succulent leaves; two sepal-like
bracts; many tepals
Zygomorphic flowers; 5-parted perianth; petals not fused; 3 fused carpels
Versitile Anther--which family has this?
Anther attached to filament is such a way that it can rock back and forth readily.

monadelphous stamens--which family has this?

Stamens fused by filaments into single group, usually forming tube.
Diadelphous stamens--which family has this?
Stamens with their filaments fused to form two groups.

tetradynamous stamens--which family has this?

4+2 stamens
Describe stamens in Violaceae
Two nectar producing stamens
in the petal spur
Diploid nutritive tissue in seeds of some angiosperms derived from the sporangium wall.
Endemic Species
species restricted to a narrow geographic region.
Spiny short-shoot characteristic of the Cactaceae.
Five traits commonly found in families assigned to the
- gamopetalous corollas
- 5-parted flowers
- single whorl of stamens that alternate with the petal lobes
- epipetalous stamens
- 2 fused carpels
What are the synapomorphies of the Asteridae as we know them today?
-Iridoid Compounds
-Unitegmic ovules
-Tenuinucellate ovules
What is one trait traditionally given as a synapomorphy of the Asteridae that is no longer considered one and name a family that doesn't have this trait but is now assigned to the asteridae.
Fused corollas

Which of the following is NOT a mechanism used by plants to prevent self-pollination?
a) Physical separation of stamens and stigmas
b) Protandry
c) Geitonogamy
d) Dioecy
e) Self-incompatibility
c) Geitonogamy
Which term refers to flowers that self-fertilize in the bud without ever opening?
a) Cleistogamy
b) Distyly
c) Apomixis
d) Embyrogeny
e) Outcrossing
a) Cleistogamy
Which of the following is not an example of asexual reproduction?
a) Rhizomes
b) Autogamy
c) Bulbils
d) Agamospermy
e) Layering
b) Autogamy
Which of the following is a potential advantage of self-pollination?
b) Reduces the chance of expression of deleterious genes
c) Promotes inbreeding depression
d) Increases the exchange of genetic material
e) Assures seed set, when no pollinators are available
f) Only one set of genes passed to next generation
e) Assures seed set, when no pollinators are available
fungus that forms symbiotic association with plant roots.