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16 Cards in this Set

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What is eukaryotic cell division called?
mitosis or the seperation of 2 copies of dna into daughter haploid cells
What is it called when you are either missing or contain an extra chromosome?
monomy = missing
trisomy = extra
What are somatic cells?
non-reproductive cells contains: 23 pairs 2n=46 in humans / diploid #
What are gametes?
sex cells, receiving 1 haploid chromosome from each parent = 23 pairs from each parent
What are homologous chromosomes?
pairs of chromosome with the same basic gene and each pair is made up of one inherited chromosome from each parent = x
What is a karyotype?
individuals particular array of chromonsomes
What is a genotyp in relation to a phenotype?
the genotype is the specific genetic blueprint or DNA a person has and phenotype is the specific characteristic or expression of that specific trait
Explain the purpose of cell division?
cell division is needed for the growth and development of an organism and for the ability to offset death
What are the universl steps of cell division in ALL organisms?
1. DNA replication
2. seperation of DNA copies
3. seperations of cells into daughter cells
What is prokaryotic cell division called?
binary fission or the process beginning in the middle of the cell to ensure 1 daughter cell ends up in each portion of the new cells
Describe the steps of binary fission?
1. DNA replicates
2. cell elongates
- DNA cpies seperate and move apart
3. septation occurs
- FtsZ protein ring forms at midpoint while constricting with the inward growth of the septum
4. cell pinches off into 2 daughter cells
Explain what happens during each stage of mitosis?
1. prophase = chromosome condense fully - visible
- spindle assembles and microtubles connect inbetween the kinetochore and spindle poles
-nuclear envelope breaks and nucleolus disappears
2. metaphase = chromosomes attach to sister chromatids and allign ensuring one copy goes to each new cell
3. anaphase = sisters/centromeres are pulled toward the poles as the microtubles get shorter
4. telophase = opposite of prophase = chromosomes decondense, nuclear envelope reforms and spindle disassenbles
What is cytokinesis?
how is this different in animals and plants?
cleavage of one cell into two daughter cells
animals = constriction of actin filament
plants = cell plate forms
explain cell cycle checkpoints?
1. g1/s = primary division decision ckpt
2. g2/m = commitment to mitosis
3. spindle ckpt = ensure chromosomes are aligned and ready to seperate for anaphase
explain the difference between proto-oncogenes, oncogenes, and tumor suppressor genes?
p.o are normal genes that stimulate growth
o = her-2/neu mutation or breast cancer genes
tsg = are genes that cause cell suicide or apoptosis - in which case the p53 is absent or inactive
Bonus:
a. what is the cervical cancer vaccine called?
b. what is erythropoitein?
a. gardisil
b. it is a nerve groth factor triggering cell division in red blood cells