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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the result of enzymatic reaction?
A decrease in the energy of activation of chemical reactions
Which is a product of the reaction between an acid and a base
a salt
Which component of bone operates to reduce the brittleness of bone?
During bone development, which process is responsible for ossification of most of the axial skeleton?
primarily intramembranous ossification
Which statement correctly identifies the differences between cartilage and bone?
Cartilage is avascular and has no fibers; bone is vascular and has no collagen fibers.
Which features are unique to thoracic vertebrae?
Facets and demifacets
When a person sits of a chair with thighs together, the thighs are in which position?
Flexed and adducted
Which condition causes a muscle cramp?
Changes in membrane permeability
Which bony landmarks are used to measure the combined length of the femur and tibia to determine the lenght of the leg?
The anterior inferior iliac spine to the lateral malleolus of the fibula
Which most efficiently buffers plasma acid?
Bicarbonate buffer
Which factor will contribute to the formation of edema?
Lowered blood proteins
Which heart chamber receives oxygenated blood from the lungs?
Left atrium
If the connection between the vagus nerve and the heart were severed, how would the heart rate be affected? the heart rate would
If a person with high blood pressure has an elevated afterload, what is most likely to occur?
The end-systolic volum will increase
During aerobic respiration glucose is oxidized, yielding adenosine triphosphate (ATP). What two other compounds are produced?
Carbon dioxide and water
Manual stimulation of the baroreceptors of the carotid sinuses by massaging the neck over the carotid sisnuses would have which effects?
a drop in blood pressure and a drop in heart rate.
Which most directly stimulates respiration?
Carbon dioxide
A high-fat meal would cause an increase in the level of which substance in the blood?
Cholecystokinin (CCK)
Which action occurs during swallowing?
The tongue closes the oropharynx.
Gastrin, cholecystokinin (CCK), and secretin are what type of chemical substance?
Which condition leads to the decresed oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood?
Lack of intrinsic factor
During which phase of the cardiac cycle is ventricular pressure the lowest?
Rapid ventricular filling
Which vitamin is considered toxic if taken in excess?
Retinol (A)
Which provides a barrier that restricts the movement of proteins and other large molucules from the underlying CT and into the epithelium?
Basal Lamina
Why do people in color photographs taken by a flash camera often have red eyes?
The stuctures within the eye absorb fewer red wavelengths than other color wavelengths
Which statement describes the effect of two different hormones acting on the same organ?
Glucocorticoids and epinephrine cause adipose tissue to increase lipogenesis.
Which would occur if adenylate cyclas were inhibited? The response to
Antidiuretic hormone would be inhibited.
Which structures contain the hair cells that are stimulated when and individual is whirling becomes dizzy?
Semicircular ducts
Which cell type would serve as an example of convergence?
M (magnocell)
Damage to some types of myelinated nerve fibers can often be repaired if which part of the nerve remains intact?
Cell body
What is most likely to occur in a individual who is deficient in vitamin A
Rhodopsin reserves are exhausted.
Which neuron parts reside in the anterior gray horns of the spinal cord?
The cell bodies of preganglionic parasympathetic neurons.
Which part of the brain relays visual and hearing information?
Corpora quadrigemina
If a first-order neuron in the sensory pathway carrying fine touch sensation has its cell body in the right dorsal root ganglion, in what location will this neuron synapse with a second-order neuron?
Right medulla
Which function would be affected by a blockade of the parasympathetic nervous system?
Pupil constiction
How does the hypophyseal portal system (HPS) conncect with the hypothalamus and pituitary gland?
The HPS directly connects 100% the median eminence to the pars distalis via the hypothalamic-hypophyseal vein.
In light refraction, where is the normal focal point located?
where light rays cross anterior to the retina
Which behavior would be adversely affected by damage to wernicke's area?
perception of language
Which condition would lead to increase aldosterone secretion?
Decreased blood sodium (NA+)
Which layer of the uterus is shed during the menstrual cycle?
functional zone
During the process of oogenesis when is meiosis II completed?
at fertilization
Which cells are released at ovulation?
a secondary oocyte and one polar body
Which condition prevents an autoimmune response to one's own sperm?
Developing sperm are isolated from the bloodstread by tight junctions of the sustentacular cells.
Blood present in the capillary bed of the glomerulus exits via which vessel?
Efferent arteriole
Which response is stimulated by alcohol in several glasses of beer acting on the anitdiuretic hormone?
increased frequency of urination
Which solute comprises the majority of nitrogen-containing material in urine?
How can glomerular filtration be reduced?
Reduce the diameter of the afferent arteriole.
Which cells form the macula densa of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
modified distal tubular cells
Which part of the nephron increase its permeability to water in the presence of anitdiuretic hormone (ADH)?
collecting duct
where is the largest percentage of filtered water reabsorbed?
in the proximal convoluted tubule.